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Terms in this set (100)
Which of the following is NOT a fxn of the lymphatic & immune system?
a) draining excess interstitial fluid
b) Maintaining water homeostasis
c) transporting dietary lipids
d) Carrying out immune responses
Maintaining water homeostasis
What is the major difference b/w lymph and interstitial fluid?
a) composition of electrolytes
b) WBCs are present in lymph
d) Types of proteins present
e) RBCs are present in interstitial fluid
location (lymph is only found in lymphatic vessels and lymphatic tissue)
What determines the border of the subclavian aa becoming the axillary aa?
(after the 1st rib the subclavian becomes the axillary aa)
What cx's lymph from the small intestines to appear while?
lipids (creamy colour referred to as Chyle)
The Left Subclavian vv receives lymph from the:
a) L Axillary vv
b) Lumbar trunk
c) Jugular trunk
d) Thoracic Duct
The skeletal mm and respiratory pumps are used in the:
a) lymphatic system
b) Cardiovascular system
c) Lymphatic & Immune system
d) Lymphatic + Cardiovascular + Immune system
Lymphatic + Cardiovascular + Immune system
(Lymph + Veins have a 1 way valve system relying on mm & respiratory pumps)
(The immune system works with the lymphatic system)
Which organ produces a hormone that promotes maturation of T cells?
b) Lymph nodes
(T= Tcells vs B cells + Pre-T cells = RBM )
In which part of the Thymus are T cells thought to die?
c) Thymic Hassall's Corpuscle
d) T cells do not die in the thymus
Thymic Hassall's corpuscle
An individual in a coma who has not been able to move will most likely have a reduction in activity of the:
a) respiratory pump
b) skeletal mm pump
c) both skeletal mm + respiratory pump
skeletal mm pump
The level of thymic hormones
a) remain the same throughout an individuals lifetime
b) is highest just after puberty
c) highest in old age
d) highest in childhood
highest in childhood
Lymphatic capillaries, b/c of their greater permeability than blood capillaries, can readily absorb which molecules that are NOT easily absorbed by blood capillaries?
Select all that apply:
c) interstitial fluid
Proteins & Lipids
Which of the following is a function of the lymphatic system?
a) Drains excessive interstitial fluid
b) Transports dietary lipids
c) Carry out immune response
d) all of the above are fxns of the lymphatic system
all of the above
Which of the following is a fxn of the SPLEEN?
a) Removes worn out blood cells
b) Circulates lymph
c) Cleanses interstitial fluid
d) Traps microbes with mucus
removes worn out blood cells
Where is the Spleen located?
L hypochondriac or ULQ
(Behind the stomach)
What does not provide a physical or chemical barrier?
e) stratified squamous epithelium
Which of these provides NON-Specific 2nd line of defence?
d) Memory B cells
(2nd defence: internal antimicrobial substances = Interferons/ Complement/Iron-binding protein; NK; phagocytes = Neutrophils + Macrophages; inflammation + fever)
When B & T cells are fully developed and matured they are described as:
Which of the following induces the production of a specific antibody?
Which class of cells include macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells?
a) antigen presenting cells
b) primary lymphocytes
c) helper cells
d) memory cells
Which cells displays CD4 protein and interact with MHC class 2 angitgens?
a) Cytotoxic T cells
b) Helper T cells
c) Plasma cells
d) B cells
Helper T cells
Which class of antibodies is mainly found in sweat, tears breast milk and GI secretions?
Which Complement system action makes microbes more susceptible to phagocytosis?
d) Cascade activiation
What is the correct flow through a lymph node?
a) afferent lymphatics - Trabecular sinus - Subcapsular sinus - Medullary sinus - Efferent lymphatics
b) Afferent lymphatics - Subcapsular sinus - Trabecular sinus - Medullary sinus - Efferent lymphatics
Afferent lymphatics - Subcapsular sinus - Trabecular sinus - Medullary sinus - Efferent lymphatics
(A - S- T - M - E)
In regards to the heart, S1 is the sound of:
a) AV valves opening
b) AV valves closing
c) Semilunar valves opening
d) Semilunar valves closing
AV valves closing
(S2 = Semilunar valves Closing)
What happens if Acetylcholinesterase is left in the cleft?
a) Rapid breakdown of ACh
b) Sustained mm contraction
c) Nothing would happen
d) Continuous release of ACh
Rapid breakdown of ACh
What 2 mm's rotate the condyles of the TMJ?
b) Temporalis + Lateral Pterygoid
c) Masseter + Lateral Pterygoid
d) Medial Pterygoid
Temporalis + Lateral Pterygoid
BMR is primarily regulated by?
b) Thyroid gland
c) Parathyroid gland
Alpha cells in the pancreas secrete:
c) Intrinsic factor
Glucagon (increases blood glucose)
Where are goblet cells found?
secrete mucus to protect mucous membranes; found in the epithelial lining of organs (intestines + respiratory tract)
What is a common side effect of NSAIDs?
What type of fat is found in fish + some vegetable oil
Hep A is transmitted by:
a) Fecal oral
b) blood borne
c) sexually transmitted
d) air borne
fecal oral (Hep A + E both fecal oral)
Where would you see a scar for a cholecystectomy?
Babinski's Sign in an adult is a sign of?
Interruption of corticospinal tract (UMN lesion)
Where does the L Thoracic Duct begin?
Cisterna chyli (L2 - begins as dilation)
Where do pluripotent stem cells originate?
Where do T cells mature?
Which class of antibodies in the blood and lymph indicates a recent invasion?
IgM (Mary is 1st to Arrive - Mary is the 1st blood drinker & still at Large)
What are the 5 steps of Phagocytosis?
Killing (death of target cell & release of debris = exocytosis)
Which of the following is NOT part of the Upper Respiratory system?
b) Oral Cavity
(Upper = nose/ nasal cavity/ pharynx)
(Lower = Larynx/ trachea/ Bronchi/ Lungs)
Which of the following is a passageway for air, food and water?
c) Paranasal sinuses
(13 cm long starts at internal nares to cricoid cartilage)
What structures prevents food from entering the trachea?
a) Arytenoid cartilage
d) Thyroid cartilage
The gas law that describes the pressure changes that occur during pulmonary ventilation is:
a) Boyle's law
b) Henry's law
c) Dalton's law
d) Frank's law
(pressure of gas in a closed contain is inversely proportional to volume of the container)
What structures is located ant to the esophagus?
Which is the primary gas exchange site?
Which of the following maintains open airways in the Lower Respiratory system?
a) Stratified Squamous epithelium with keratin
b) ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells
c) Hyaline cartilage
d) Mucus membrane
hyaline cartilage (maintains patency)
The point where the trachea divided into right and left primary bronchi is a ridge called?
a) 2ndary bronchioles
c) Parietal pleura
d) visceral pleura
Which of the following cells of the alveoli produce surfactant?
a) Type 1 alveolar cells
b) Type 2 alveolar cells
c) Type 3 alveolar cells
d) Surface cells
Type 2 alveolar cells
(aka Septal cells)
(Type 1 = forms the lining of the alveolar wall = for gas exchange)
What level of the spine is the Larynx?
C4-C6 (vocal box)
Why is lymph hold onto or is able to contain the bacteria it has found?
foreign substances in lymph that enter lymph node may be phagocytized by macrophages or attacked by lymphocytes that mount immune response
What is the flow of lymph?
jxn of the internal jugular & subclavian vv
Which of the following indicates the direction of diffusion of gases at the alveoli and the lungs?
a) Oxygen into blood, Carbon dioxide into blood
b) Oxygen out of blood and Carbon dioxide into blood
c) Oxygen into blood and Carbon dioxide out of blood
d) Oxygen out of blood and carbon dioxide out of blood
Oxygen into blood and Carbon dioxide out of blood
Exhalation begins when:
a) Inspiratory mm's relax
b) Diaphragm contracts
c) blood circulation is the lowest
d) Both inspiratory mm's relax and diaphragm contracts
inspiratory mm's relax
Which of the following is the sum of residual and the expiratory reserve volume?
a) Total lung capacity
b) Functional residual capacity
c) Inspiratory capacity
d) Vital capacity
functional residual capacity
Which of the following is NOT a factor that the rate of pulmonary and systemic gas exchange depends on?
a) partial pressure difference of the gases
b) Surface area for gas exchange
c) Diffusion distance
d) force of contraction of diaphragm
force of contraction of diaphragm
Which of the following is the Dominant method of carbon dioxide transport?
a) bound to hemoglobin
b) bound to oxygen
c) dissolved in plasma as a gas
d) dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ion
dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ion
(CO2 is carried = 70% via Bicarbonate [HCO3] // 23% via hemoglobin [Hb-CO2] // 7% dissolved in plasma)
(O2 is carried = 98.5% as Oxyhemoglobin & 1.5% dissolved in plasma)
When blood pH drops, the amount of oxyhemoglobin _____ and oxygen delivery to the tissue cells ______
a) Increases, increases
b) increase, Decreases
c) Decrease, increases
d) decrease, decreases
(O2 dissociates from hemoglobin and is delivered to the needed tissue)
(Shift to the Right = increase O2 affinity
Most important = Partial Pressure O2
Partial Pressure CO2
Increased Temperature *Bisphosphoglycerate BPG)
(Shift to the LEFT = Decrease in O2 affinity = Fetal Hemoglobin + Carbon Monoxide)
Which part of the conducting zone has a sensitive cough reflex?
Carina (last tracheal ring)
Which of the following is NOT a factor that affects Hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen?
a) pH of blood
b) Partial pressure O2
c) Amount of oxygen available
amount of oxygen available
An individual suffers a blood clot in an aa that delivered blood to his leg. The leg begins to take on a blue hue, becomes colder than the rest of his body and he experiences numbness in the leg. He is mostly experiencing:
a) anemic hypoxia
b) ischemic hypoxia
c) hypoxic hypoxia
d) allergic hypoxia
Where is the cricoid cartilage?
What is the correct order of the bronchial tree:
a) Trachea - Main bronchi - Lobar bronchi - Segmental bronchi - Bronchioles - Terminal bronchioles
b) Trachea - Main bronchi - Segmental bronchi - Lobar bronchi - Bronchioles - Terminal bronchioles
c) Main bronchi - Trachea - lobar bronchi - segmental bronchi - terminal bronchioles - bronchioles
d) Main bronchi - Lobar bronchi - Segmental Bronchi - Trachea
Trachea - Main bronchi - Lobar bronchi - Segmental bronchi - Bronchioles - Terminal bronchioles
(Main = Primary // Lobar = Secondary // Segmental = Tertiary)
The majority of the body's lymph drains into:
a) Left subclavian vv via the Thoracic duct
b) Right Subclavian vv via the Thoracic duct
c) Right Subclavian vv via Right lymphatic duct
d) Left Subclavian vv via Jugular truck
Left subclavian vv via the Thoracic duct
How does lymph travel to lymph nodes?
Respiratory (during pressure changes) & Skeletal pump (cxing milking action)
1) Which lung is 10% smaller?
2) Which lung is shorter?
3) Which lung has 3 lobes
1) Left d/t the heart (has cardiac notch)
2) Right d/t the liver (Larger as in wider)
Where does the Kreb's cycle take place?
a) Outside the cell
b) within the Mitochondria
c) In the cytosol
d) On Rough ER
What is the primary fxn of Beta cells of the Pancreas?
a) store and release insulin
b) store and release glucagon
c) store and release intrinsic factor
d) store and release CCK
store and release insulin
(Decreases blood glucose levels)
Glucagon is secreted by what cell?
c) D cells
d) F cells
The small intestines comprised of duodenum, Jejunum, ileum; if the ileum was removed what would the body have trouble absorbing?
B12 (via active transport and intrinsic factor released by the stomach needs to be present)
a) Pressure of gas in a closed container is inversely proportional to volume of the container
b) Quantity of gas that will dissolve in liquid is proportional to partial pressure and its solubility
c) Each gas in a mixture exerts it's own pressure
a) Boyle's law
b) Henry's Law
c) Dalton's Law
What cells are capable producing memory cells?
What makes up the 1st line of defence?
Skin/ mucus membrane/ hair/ saliva/ Urine/ Lysozyme in tears & nasal secretions
(2nd line = Antimicrobial + NK cells + fever + "itis")
What Cartilage is landmarked for a Tracheostomy?
a) Thyroid cartilage
b) Cricoid cartilage
d) Arytenoid cartilage
The Larynx contains 9 cartilage that is mostly Hyaline cartilage, which is the only one that is made of ELASTIC cartilage?
a) Thyroid cartilage
Which respiratory Law is associated with The bends (Decompression sickness)
Henry's Law (quantity of gas that will dissolve in liquid is proportional to partial pressure of gas & its solubility)
(Henry is All about Solubility!)
What is primarily responsible for Regular inhalation?
Diaphragm contracts 75% (flat)
(25% External Intercostals contract - Pulls ribs up)
What mm's are used in Forced Inhalation?
SCM (elevates sternum)
Scalenes (elevates ribs 1-2)
Pec Minor (elevates ribs 3-5)
What is primarily responsible for regular exhalation?
(Diaphragm relax = Dome // External Intercostals = Relax as well)
What mm's are responsible for forced Exhalation?
Abdominal mm's (Inf ribs move inf)
Intercostals (pulls ribs inf + in)
Chemical reactions that breakdown complex organic molecules into simpler ones are called:
d) oxidation reaction
a) the removal of protons
b) the removal of electrons
c) the addition of protons
d) the addition of electrons
the removal of electrons
Reduction is the:
a) removal of protons
b) removal of electrons
c) addition of electrons
d) addition of protons
addition of electrons
Which of the following is a derivative of riboflavin?
c) Lactic acid
d) Pyruvic acid
Which of the following is NOT a form of phosphorylation?
a) Reduction phosphorylation
b) Substrate level phosphorylation
c) Oxidative phosphorylation
Glycogenesis is NOT:
a) performed by the hepatocytes
b) performed by muscle fibers
c) one way to make glycogen
d) one way to make glucose
one way to make glucose
Which process describes the synthesis of triglycerides?
Which of following processes is the fxn of sm mm layers of the digestive system?
c) mixing and propulsion
mixing and propulsion
Which portion of the peritoneum drapes over the transverse colon?
a) Greater omentum
b) Falciform lig
c) Lesser Omentum
What structures are Retroperitoneal?
What structure is the only Digestive organ that is attached to the abdominal wall?
What is Saliva mostly composed of?
d) Salivary Amylase
How many stages of deglutition are there?
(Voluntary/ Pharyngeal/ Esophagus)
Which of the following cells secrete hydrochloric acid?
a) Mucous cells
b) Parietal cells
c) Chief cells
d) Serosa cells
(from the stomach = Secretes = HCl + Intrinsic factor )
(Hormone G cells in the stomach = secrete gastrin to increase gastric juice)
How long can food stay in the fundus being mixed with gastric juices?
a) 10 mins
b) 20 mins
c) 30 mins
d) 1 hr
Which major duct carries a fluid rich in bicarbonate ions?
a) Pancreatic duct
b) Hepatopancreatic duct
c) Cystic duct
d) Bile duct
Which of the following small intestine cells secretes lysozyme?
a) goblet cells
b) Absorptive cells
c) Mucosa cells
d) paneth cells
(Small intestines = PAIGE = Paneth/ Absorptive/ Interstine gland
Goblet cells / Enteroendocrine cells )
Which of the following are milk secreting glands in the breast?
d) Lactiferious sinus
Which of the following is the principal estrogen hormone in the non-pregnant women?
Which is the only ovarian hormone that does not have an inhibiting control over other hormones?
Low levels of estrogen & progesterone cx:
b) Inhibitition of GnRH
c) Sudden surge of LH
d) inhibition of FSH + LH
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Spinal + Pelvis Ligaments
Spinal nn branches + ligaments
Post Neck + Back
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