AP Psychology (Myers 8th Edition) Chapter 2
Neuroscience and Behavior
Terms in this set (30)
extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables faster transmission speed of neural impulses
Central Nervous System (CNS)
the brain and spinal cord
neurons that carry outgoing info from the CNS to the muscles and glands
neurons carry incoming informations from the sense receptors to the CNS
sympathetic nervous system
division of autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
amplified recording of electrical activity waves that sweep across the brain's surface; waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
PET scan (positron emission topography)
visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while a brain performs a given task
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
uses magnetic fields & radio waves to produce computer generated images of types of soft tissue; allows us to see brain structures
"little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; processes sensory input and coordinates movement output and balance
doughnut shaped system between brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; controls basic emotions and drives (food and sex)
intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; ultimate control and information processing center
portion of the cerebral cortex behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans/judgements
portion of the cerebral cortex at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive information from the opposite visual field
portion of the cerebral cortex above the ears; includes auditory areas each of which receives information from the opposite field
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
areas of the cerebral cortex involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, or speaking
controls language expression; an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs muscle movements involved in speech
the large band of neural fibers connecting the 2 brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
Controls language reception—a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
Largest part of a typical neuron; contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm
"morphine within"--natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention and learning and the brain's pleasure and reward system.
A neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep, arousal, and mood.
Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure and dilates airways (sympathomimetic). It is part of the body's "fight or flight" reaction.
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