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SGU SVM Parasit protozoa
Terms in this set (143)
an organism that lives in or on another organism of a different species (its host)
A kind of symbiotic relationship between 2 different species in which one is metabolically dependent on the other
Define facultative parasite
an organism capable of living either free or have a parasitic existence
lives mainly in the body
live mainly on the surface of the host
roundworms, flatworms, and flukes
single cells, eukaryotic organism
organisms with exoskeletons and jointed appendages
an object or nonparasitic organism that is mistaken for a true parasite
the living organism in or on which a parasite subsists, develops, and or reproduces
Define definitive host
an obligatory host in which a parasite reaches sexual maturity
Define intermediate host
an obligatory host in which the life cycle of the parasite in which immature or asexual stages undergo essential development before transmission
Define mechanical vector
a nonessential host which passively carries infective parasite stages on its surface
Define biological vector
usually an arthropod, may be an intermediate host of a mechanical host
Define paratenic host
parasites undergo no development or proliferation within these hosts but they are carried within the body until consumed by the proper host
Define reservoir host
a population of infected hosts which serve as a potential source of infection for other species of susceptible animals
Define infective stage
stage when parasite is capable of initiating a new infection with another host
Define direct life cycle
transmission of parasite to a host directly (no intermediate hosts)
Define indirect life cycle
transmission of parasite to a host via one or more essential intermediate hosts
Define pre-patent period
the time between ingestion of infective parasite by the definitive host until eggs are first produced
Define patent period
the life span of the adult parasite in the host
establishment of a parasite within a host, with or without development of clinical signs
establishment of a parasite on the surface of the host
clinical manifestations of infection or infestation
Define subclinical infection
parasite infection in which no clinical signs are manifested, however, evidence may be detected by decreased growth/loss of production
life history stages of protozoa
1. trophozoites (motile)
2. cyst (resting, resistant)
Modes of locomotion for protozoa
How do protozoa reproduce?
asexually and sexually
Asexual modes of reproduction
1. binary fission
2. multiple fission
Sexual modes of reproduction
1. conjugation then binary fission
What is conjugation?
temporary fusion of cells with nuclear exchange
What is syngamy?
the union of fusion of sexually distinct gametes to form a zygote
Unique characteristics of trichomonads
-4 to 6 flagella
-no cyst phase
Which is always infective: cyst phase or mobile phase?
Trichomonads oxygen preference
How do trichomonads reproduce?
longitudinal binary fission
Where does T. foetus live?
preputial cavity of bull (highest numbers in fornix and glans penis)
List the protozoa of the repro tract
clinical features of T. foetus in cow
-early abortion (3-4 month gestation)
clinical features of T. foetus in bull
-occasional preputial swelling
How do you test for T. foetus?
How do you treat T. foetus?
-sexual rest and AI for cow
-Alcide flush of the preputial cavity
Is there a vaccine for T. foetus?
yes it's a killed vaccine, TrichGuard
List the protozoa of the GIT
How is T. foetus transmitted?
How is T. gallinae transmitted?
-adults to squabs in milk
-adult beak to beak
What does T. gallinae infect?
Other names for T. gallinae
Canker and Frounce
T. gallinae clinical signs
-mucoid nasal exudate
-difficulty breathing and swallowing
-creamy white sticky lesions in mouth/upper GIT that become caseous necrotic masses
What is cloacal drinking?
occurs when bird draws fluid into cloaca to help keep the vent clean and help stimulate the immune system by bringing antigens in contact with the Bursa
How do you diagnose T. gallinae?
-based on gross lesions
How to treat T. gallinae
Black head disease
Histomonas meleagridis (plus ecoli or clostridium)
Hosts of H. meleagridis
turkeys, chickens, and other game birds
Where can you find H. meleagridis?
How does H. meleagridis move?
Does H. meleagridis have flagella in tissues?
Does H. meleagridis have a cyst stage?
Which worm does H. meleagridis work with to cause infection?
How is H. gallinarum worm transmitted?
cloacal drinking or ingestion of earth worms/infected dirt via pecking
clinical signs of H. meleagridis
-cyanotic skin (black head disease)
-drooping head and wings
Which species has the most severe cases of H. meleagridis?
How do you treat H. meleagridis?
Does Giardia have a cyst phase?
What is the scientific name of giardia?
Giardia lamblia/ giardia intestinalis/ giardia duodenalis
Where would you find the trophozoite form of giardia?
Where would you find the cyst form of giardia?
What is the most common flagellate found in the human GIT?
What does a giardia trophozoite look like?
How does giardia reproduce?
binary fission every 12 hours
How many nuclei are found in new giardia cysts?
How many nuclei are found in older giardia cysts?
How many assemblages exist for giardia?
Which giardia assemblages are zoonotic?
A, B, E
Species effected by giardia A1
humans and animals
Species effected by giardia A2
humans and dogs
Species effected by giardia A3
humans and animals
Species effected by giardia B
humans, dogs, many mammals
Species effected by giardia C
Species effected by giardia D
Species effected by giardia E
sheep, goat, pig, dog
Species effected by giardia F
Species effected by giardia G
Species effected by giardia H
grey and harbour seals, seagulls
Describe morphology of Histomonas
pleomorphic (amoeboid form, transitional form)
Describe the transitional form of Histomonas
enclosed in a dense membrane, rapidly dies in outside temp
When is histomonoas most severe: _______ days after infection
How can you treat the Heterakis worms associated with H. meleagridis?
Piperazine or phenothiazine
Clinical signs of early stages of giardia
-pale greasy mucus stool
-sulphur smelling gas
-weight loss and dehydration
Clinical signs of chronic stage Giardia
-vit b12 malabsorption
How can you diagnosis giardia?
-fecal smear with saline for trophs
-fecal float with iodine for cysts
What is the gold standard test for giardia?
What is GIP?
Gastrointestinal Panel for 9 major enteric bacteria and parasites
What's another name for giardia?
How can you prevent giardia?
-proper water treatment
-water purification filters
-removal of animal feces
-safe food storage
How do you treat giardia in small animals?
metronidazole + chlorhex bath
How do you treat giardia in ruminants?
fenbendazole +chlorhex bath
Pathology of giardia
-dense coat of flagellates on intestinal epithelium
-damage to microvilli
-interfere with fat and nutrient absorption
What is the prevalence of entamoeba?
more than 1 billion people/year
Name the 2 entamoeba species for this class
Hosts of E. histolytica
human and nonhuman primates
Hosts of E. invadens
transmission of entamoeba
Does entamoeba have a cyst phase?
pathogenesis of entamoeba
-break out of cyst in SI
-trophs then move to LI
-live in crypts
-hydrolyze mucosal cells and absorb predigested product
-eat through walls to reach blood and spread
Where can entamoeba trophs travel to?
liver, lungs, skin
Characteristic morphology of entamoeba
bull's eye (nucleus with central endosome)
Entamoeba cysts can survive for _____ days in a cool environment
Entamoeba cysts can survive for ______ days in water
Entamoeba is killed below ______ C
Entamoeba is killed above _____ C
How many nuclei are in a mature E. histolytica cyst?
How many nuclei are in a mature E. invadens cyst?
Symptoms of E. histolytica
-intermittent bloody diarrhea
In chronic E. histolytica, the patient may experience _______ loose stools per day
In acute E. histolytic, the patient may experience ____ loose stools per day
Symptoms of acute amebic dysentery
-severe abdominal cramps
-prolonged straining at stool
-diarrhea with bloody mucus
Shape of ulcer formed by entamoeba
How do you diagnosis entamoeba?
-fecal float for cysts
-fecal smear for trophs
How do you treat entamoeba?
E. invadens is pathogenic in ________
snakes and lizards
E. invadens is nonpathogenic in ______
How does the size of B. coli compare to other protozoa?
Describe Balantidium coli
-binucleated -- kidney bean shape
How does B. coli move?
rotary type via cilia around membrane
Name 2 ways for B. coli to reproduce
What is the chief energy source of B. coli?
What air conditions does B. coli survive in?
both aerobic and anaerobic
How does the B. coli cyst differ from the troph?
-clear cyst wall
How is B. coli spread?
What factors predispose man to B. coli infections?
-compromised immune system
What are the clinical signs of chronic B. coli infection?
-non bloody diarrhea
What are the clinical signs of severe B. coli infection?
How do you diagnosis B. coli?
-direct fecal smear for trophs
-fecal float for cysts
How do you treat B. coli in non food animals?
How do you treat B. coli in food producing animals?
Tritrichomona fetus on slide
Giardia troph on slide
Giardia cyst on slide
Entamoeba troph on slide
Entamoeba cyst on slide
Balantidium coli troph on slide
Balantidium coli cyst on slide
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