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Bill of Rights

The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.

American System

Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.

Proclamation of 1763

issued by King goege III ending French and Indian War/Seven Years' War. It forbade Americans from settling or buying land west of the Appalachians.

American Revolution

Colonies vs Great Britain. Causes: taxes, intolerable acts, Boston Massacre, mercantilism, navigation laws, currency act, quartering act, stamp act; effects: great debt, states drew up their own constitutions, economic depression

Jefferson Presidency

• ineffective as president
• dosnt know how to get rid of BUS
• repeals excise tax
• embargo act of 1807
• marbury v. madison
• lousiana purchase
• reduces military to 3,000 ppl (wando)
• beileves in civic virtue
• barbary wars-pirates in tripoli

Jeffersonian Republicans

(thomas jefferson supported) strict, weak central government, no national bank. favored paying off debt, pro-agriculture, against standing armies, common men=gov, pro-french more diverse group of people


Led by Alexander Hamilton, believed wealthy and well educated people should run the nation, favored a strong federal government, emphasized manufacturing, shipping, and trade, loose interpretation of the Constitution, pro-British, favored National Bank

Women's rights

Women could not vote and if married, they had no right to own property or retain their own earnings. They were also discriminated in the areas of education and employment, not receiving the opportunities that men possessed. This encouraged the development of educational institutions for women.

neutrality of 1790

Policy of supporting neither side in a war.

Hartford Convention

Federalists proposed :
1. eliminating 3/5ths rule because south dominated the House
2. requiring 2/3 vote in Congress for new states, embargoes, and war
3. limiting presidents to 1 term
4. holding conference to discuss possibility of secession

Stamp Act

taxes on all legal documents to support British troops, NOT approved by colonists through their representatives

Declaration of Independence

This document was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. It established the 13 colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document.

Louisiana Purchase

the purchase in 1803 of French lands in North America that doubled the size of the United States - benefitted farmers in Ohio River Valley. Jefferson needed to loosely interpret Constitution to justify purchase


The belief that God has created the universe and set it in motion to operate like clockwork. God is literally in the wings watching the show go on as humans forge their own destiny.

Republican government

type of government in which power is exercised by representatives chosen by the people

Lowell/Waltham System

workers are young, single women; lived in company housing; low wages; ended in 1830s and 40s w/immigration of Irish workers; model community at center of textile manufacturing; textiles - power loom + shoes (Lynn, MA)

Salutary neglect

term that refers tot he English monarchs' relaxed handling of colonial trade and enforcement of the Navigation Laws

Ratification of constitution

1. The Philidelphia Convention (supposed to just change the A.O.C.)

2. The Virginia Plan & New Jersey Plan(small states) led to the Connecticut Compromise/Great Compromise- plan to have a popularly elected House based on population and a Senate with 2 members per state

3. Republic- governments where elected representatives make decisions

4. Anti-federalists opposed it.

5. The Federalist Papers had to convince many

6. Bill of Rights had to be promised

19th century immigration

Irish immigration, mostly males, had greatly increased beginning in the 1820s, Eerie Canal built by Irish. Small but tight communities developed in growing cities such as Philadelphia, Boston, New York and Providence.
Irish immigrants = 1/3 of US, and 2/3 =Catholic. Fleeing from the Great Irish Famine of 1845-1852 = mass immigration.



Hamilton's economic policy

believed banking and prodeuction was the way of the furture for American commerce, good job putting economy back on track, strong national economy

Marbury vs. Madison

John Marshall, doesn't give back job to Marbury, because he rules that the Judicial Act of 1801 was unconstitutional. Establishes the policy of judicial review, and sets up the third point in the governmental triangle.

1st Great Awakening

religious movement that featured preaching from evangelists who believed colonist needed to be called back to sincere Christian committment.

Monroe Doctrine

President James Monroe's statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility

Northwest Territory

the vast territory of land that included present-day Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin; was politically organized by the Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Articles of Confederation

It was CRAP, like seriously... Caca-crap. The document establishing a "league of friendship" among the American states in 1781. The government proved too weak to rule effectively and was replaced by the current Constitution.

separate spheres

the idea that men and women had different traditional roles and duties in society

common school movement

a good, free school for all (no matter their economic or social status), with trained teachers. Horace Mann education advocator.

election of 1800

election which John Adams lost, and Thomas Jefferson took over; Burr and Jefferson fights for presidency because of how the Constitution was worded

embargo of 1807

occured during second term of thomas jefferson. Partly because of the Chesapeake incident.
1 prohibited from landing at a foreign port unless instructed by the president .
2. post bond of garuntee to equal value of ship and cargo

foreign policy

Set the US off-limits to Europe and keep the US out of European affairs.

xyz affair

The XYZ Affair was a 1798 diplomatic episode that worsened relations between France and the United States and led to the undeclared Quasi-War of 1798. Significance: This event led to the creation of the Alien and Sedition acts.

alien and sedition act

Federalist act against immigrants -- wanted to prevent immigrants from getting in and wanted to kick out any immigrants deemed dangerous; also outlawed saying, writing, or doing anything against the government

shay's rebellion

was led by Daniel Shays it was a protest against the land being taken away and the taxes that they had just worked so hard to get rid of

war of 1812

War fought between the United States and Britain from June 1812 to January 1815 largely over British restrictions on American shipping.

war hawks

Members of Congress who wanted to declare war against Britain after the Battle of Tippecanoe

westward expansion

A trend encouraged by Homestead Act, Transcontinental Railroad, Discover of Gold and Silver, Adventure, New beginning for former slaves.
A period when people settled the Great Plains and the remaining frontier

Missouri compromise

Compromise worked out by Henry Clay in 1820: slavery would be prohibited in the Louisiana territory north of 36' 30'; Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state, Maine would enter the Union as a free state

panic of 1819

first ever depression, caused by war of 1812 bc of overproduction and spending money for roads and canals and overspeculation in frontier lands --> farmes forclosed, sectionalism increased


An individual who opposed the ratification of the new Constitution in 1787. The Anti-Federalists were opposed to a strong central government.

French alliance

occurs after the battle of saratoga because thr French realize the colonists might have a chance at winning the American Revolution and they wanted to get back at Britain


Beliefs of Pilgrims who rejected the Church of England.

Era of Good Feelings

name for President Monroe's two terms: period of strong nationalism, economic growth, territorial expansion, and fewer partisan conflicts

Strict Constructionism

Belief that Constitution should be read in a way that limits powers of the federal govt as much as possible.

Loose constructionism

based on the elastic clause, Congress possessed a wide range of implied powers under its broad authority to tax, coin money, and regulate interstate commerce

Whiskey Rebellion

a protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy

The Federalist

Essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788.

virtual representation

British governmental theory made by Prime Minister Grenville that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members

Industrial Revolution

During this rapid period of industrial growth more and more countries adopted mass production. Handmade goods were quickly replaced by machine-goods. Factory laborers replaced crafsmen and home production.

Causes of Civil war

1. Issue of slavery
2. Abolitionists want slavery to end
3. South fears it will lose power in the national government
4. Southern states secede after Lincoln's election
5. Confederates bomb Fort Sumter


a loose union of independent states; name of government used by the southern states that seceded during the Civil War


The north states in the Civil War. They were against slavery.


The period following the civil war. In its broadest sense, this was the period during which the United States began to rebuild after the civil war.


compulsory enrollment of persons for military or naval service, a draft. It was first used by the southerners in the Civil War in 1862, in 1863 the Union followed suit, men could often get out of it by paying a fine or finding a substitute to take their place

nullification crisis

was a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson that arose when the state of South Carolina attempted to nullify a federal law passed by the United States Congress.

emancipation proclamation

an order issued by president Abraham Lincoln freeing the slaves in areas rebelling against the Union; took effect January 1, 1863

dred scott decision

What decision involved a Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.

kansas nebraska act

it contradicted the Missouri Compromise by potentially opening territory above 36°30' to slavery, , The territory is divided into Kansas and Nebraska and they have the right to chose by popular sovereignty to become free or slave

civil war amendments

The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the US Constitution ratified after the Civil War. They abolished slavery, granted full citizenship to African Americans, and guaranteed the right to vote to men regardless of their race. color. or previous condition of servitude.

republican motherhood

After the election of 1800 Jeffersonian promoted this as the ideal for women to raise their children with idealism of the American nation.

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