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MICRO: CHAPTER NINE
exam three :):)
Terms in this set (143)
What is an infectious disease?
An illness caused by a pathogen
What is epidemiology?
the monitoring and controlling of disease occurrence to promote public health
bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions, helminths, protozoans
What are opportunistic pathogens?
normal microbiota that cause disease when their host is weakened
What is a true pathogen?
a pathogen that does not require a weakened host to cause disease
Describe Endemic infections.
routinely detected in a population or region
Give examples of Endemic infections.
What is an Epidemic?
a widespread disease outbreak in a particular region during a specific time frame
Give examples of an Epidemic.
What is a pandemic?
occurs if an epidemic spreads to numerous countries
Give examples of a pandemic?
Which pathogens are especially likely to cause epidemics or pandemics?
Emerging and reemerging pathogens
Emerging pathogens include?
newly identified agents as well as pathogens that previously caused only sporadic cases
Give an example of an emerging pathogen.
What is a reemerging pathogen?
an infectious agent that was under control but is now resurfacing
Give an example of a reemerging pathogen.
antibiotic resistance bacteria like Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Since the 1970s what percent of emerging infections characterized are zoonotic diseases?
What are zoonotic diseases?
diseases spread from animal to humans
Many zoonotic diseases are noncommunicable which means?
they do not spread from person to person
Give examples of zoonotic diseases.
Communicable diseases spread from?
human to human
Contagious diseases are easily transmitted from?
one host to the next
During an active infection the patient is symptomatic which means?
they are showing signs and symptoms
What are signs?
objective indicators of disease that be measured or verified
Give examples of signs.
Fever, rash, or blood in stool
sensed by the patient and are subjective rather than precisely measurable
Give examples of symptoms.
Pain, fatigue, nausea
Patients experiencing a latent infection are usually?
no signs or symptoms
Infections can be characterized by?
onset and duration
Acute diseases have a _______ onset and progression.
Chronic diseases have a ______ onset and progression.
Koch's postulates were developed and published by?
Dr. Robert Koch in 1890
Dr. Robert Koch was the first person to?
link a microbe to a disease by proving the Germ Theory of Disease
Dr. Robert Koch proved that Bacillus anthracis bacteria caused:
Dr. Robert Koch also studied?
tuberculosis and cholera
Koch's postulates of disease are the four criteria used to?
evaluate what pathogen is the causative agent of a particular disease
What is Koch's first postulate?
The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease
What is Koch's second postulate?
The organism must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in a pure culture
What is Koch's third postulate?
The isolated organism should cause the disease in question when it is inoculated into a susceptible host
What is Koch's fourth postulate?
The organism should be re-isolated from the inoculated, diseased animal
Koch's postulates are important because?
they allow us to identify the causative pathogens of many infectious diseases
What are reservoirs of infection?
continual sources of infection
What are some examples of nonliving reservoirs of infection?
soil or water
What are some infections that can possibly come from soil or water?
botulism, tetanus, anthrax, fungal, protozoan infections
Living reservoirs are often called?
What are some infections that can be transmitted from host to host? (human)
AIDS, herpes, gonorrhea, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, tuberculosis, smallpox, measles
What are some infections that can be transmitted from host to host? (animals)
rabies, lyme disease, plague, typhus
What is mode of transmission?
how the pathogen spreads to a host
What are the modes of transmission?
direct and indirect
Describe direct contact transmission.
host comes into physical contact with the source of the pathogen
Give an example of direct contact transmission.
bite from a rabid animal, touching, kissing, or taking a dip in a pond
What is vertical transmission?
specialized form of direct contact
Vertical transmission occurs when?
when the pathogen passes from mother to offspring during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding
Describe indirect contact transmission.
pathogen spread without direct physical contact with the source
What are the three main categories of indirect contact transmission?
Airborne, vehicle, and vector
Airborne transmission is also called?
During airborne transmission, the pathogen enters through?
the respiratory route
Airborne transmission normally occurs by?
inhaling pathogen-laden respiratory droplets
Describe vehicle transmission.
pathogen is found on contaminated fomite
Describe vector transmission.
transmission by vectors (ex: arthropods)
Describe a biological vector.
vector organism has a role in the pathogen's life cycle
Give examples of biological vectors.
ticks, mites, biting flies, mosquitos
Describe a mechanical vector.
vector spreads disease without being integral to a pathogen's life cycle
Give examples of mechanical vectors.
flies, rodents, cockroaches
There are how many stages of disease that occur during infections?
What is infectivity?
how good an infectious agent is at establishing an infection
What is virulence?
severity of disease following infection
What is pathogenicity?
the general ability of an infectious agent to cause disease
The progression of many infectious diseases follows five basic stages:
incubation period, prodromal phase, acute phase, period of decline, convalescent phase
What is the incubation period?
time between infection and the development of disease symptoms
The incubation period could be how long?
hours or years depending on the disease
Describe the prodromal phase.
patients starts to feel run down and may have mild symptoms
Describe acute phase.
patient experiences full-blown symptoms of the disease
Some pathogens infect the host but can cause an?
asymptomatic case or subclinical case
Describe an asymptomatic case.
symptoms are mild or nonexistent. prodromal and acute phases go unnoticed
Describe the period of decline.
pathogen replication decreases, patient begins to feel better but not all patients experience this because some die
If patients on antibiotics prematurely stop taking their medication what may occur?
infection may come back
Describe the convalescent period
elimination of pathogen from the body. sometimes the host harbors a pathogen indefinitely
What is epidemiology?
the study of where and when diseases occur
What are the two general goals of epidemiology?
1) describe the nature, cause, and extent of new or existing diseases in populations. 2) intervene to protect and improve health in populations.
What does the CDC do?
collects and analyzes epidemiological information in the U.S.
What is morbidity?
incidence of a specific notifiable disease
What is mortality?
deaths from notifiable diseases
The epidemiological triangle includes?
host, etiological agent, environment.
An infectious disease barely noticeable in a normally healthy host could kill an?
Give examples of immunocompromised hosts.
babies, elderly, organ transplant recipients, cancer patients, patients with immune system dysfunction
What are some personal habits and activities that can lower risk of developing infectious disease?
frequent handwashing, avoidance of intravenous drug use, drinking clean water
Some basic public health strategies to target disease include?
education, quarantine, vector control
Some diseases with short incubation times can be controlled with?
What is quarantine?
period of confinement away from the general population
Who first showed that handwashing prevents disease?
Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis in the 1840s
What is hospital epidemiology?
involves the surveillance, prevention, and control of healthcare-acquired infections
What are HAIs?
diseases that develop from a healthcare intervention
HAIs were once called?
HAI incidence increased by ____% 1975 to 1995.
1 in 25 hospitalized patients develop an?
How many people die from HAIs every year?
HAIs cost how much per year?
about 35 billion dollars
What are the main sources of HAIs?
contaminated medical devices and healthcare workers' hands
Medical devices can be contaminated with an?
What devices inside a patient can serve as a breeding ground for infections?
catheters, central line
What are some common healthcare acquired infections?
c. diff, UTI's, surgical wound infections, MRSA, Pnuemonia
Which bacteria are some of the most common causes of HAIs?
staph, e. coli, c. diff
It is estimated that up to ___% of HAIs are preventable.
Basic preventive measures of HAIs include?
handwashing, PPE, environmental sanitization, equipment sterilization, limiting patient transport, single patient equipment use, patient isolation
What is the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS)?
network of local hospitals, laboratories, and private healthcare providers
What does the NNDSS do?
monitor and report certain diseases
The diseases on a state or local tracking list are called?
After a reportable disease is diagnosed what happens first?
it is documented per state or local rules
After a reportable disease is documented, case reports trickle up to?
the local and state reporting chain to the CDC
There are also nationally coordinated surveillance systems for things like?
monitoring antibiotic resistance, healthcare-associated infections, foodborne illnesses, bioterrorism
Eradication of an infectious diseases means that?
there are no longer any cases of it anywhere in the world
Eradication has only succeeded once with?
smallpox in 1977
_____ is close to being eradicated.
Diseases that are the best candidate for eradication are?
easily identifiable, treatable, human-specific
A patient experiences pain and discomfort. These changes in the patient's body function are referred to as
What term is used to describe a disease that develops slowly and is likely to continue or recur for long periods?
An example of a non-communicable disease is?
A disease acquired by many people in a given area in a relatively short period of time is called a(n)
Which of the following is NOT a predisposing factor affecting the occurrence of disease?
d) preexisting illness
A period of illness is immediately followed by a(n)
period of decline
The stage of disease that is characterized by early, mild symptoms is called the?
Which of the following diseases is NOT spread by droplet transmission?
The spread of pathogens via contaminated water is an example of ________ transmission.
Diseases NOT transmitted from one host to another are:
If an epidemic spreads to numerous countries it is called a(n)
The Zika virus is an example of a(n)
Koch's postulates are the four criteria used to evaluate what pathogen is the causative agent of a particular disease, but do not apply to noninfectious diseases. T or F
______________ are newly identified infectious agents and pathogens that previously caused only sporadic cases, but are increasingly common and exhibit an expanded geographical distribution.
The _______ of an infectious agent is the animate or inanimate habitat where the pathogen is naturally found.
Vertical transmission, a specialized form of ____________ , occurs when the pathogen passes from mother to offspring during pregnancy, during delivery, or through breast milk.
direct contact transmission
The time between infection and the development of the earliest symptoms is called
Which of the following is not a strategy used to break the epidemiological triangle? a) Public education
c) Vector control
d) Alternative prevention
One major role of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is to serve as a central source of ____________ information.
Another name for healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs) is
__________ are the most common cause of healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs).
Certain healthcare workers may assume that glove use can replace hand hygiene. Gloves can be considered a replacement for hand washing. T or F
Contaminated medical devices and healthcare workers' hands are the most common sources of
The best candidates for eradication are easily identifiable, treatable, or preventable infectious diseases that only humans transmit and catch. T or F
Select the most common bacterial pathogens that are associated with HAIs. Choose all that apply. a) Staphylococcus aureus
b) Clostridium difficile
c) Clostridium tetani
d) Streptococcus pneumoniae
Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile
Which of the following would NOT be a way that influenza is transmitted?
The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report is published by the
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