27 terms

Genetics

STUDY
PLAY
Allele
alternative form of a gene
Chromosome theory of inheritance
genes are carried from parents to their offspring on chromosomes.
cross-fertilization
sperm from one organism combines with the eggs of another organism of the same species
codominance
inheritance pattern in which both alleles are fully expressed in a heterozygous organism
dihybrid cross
mating of two organisms while concentrating on two definable traits
dominant
descriptive of an allele in a heterozygous individual that appears to be the only one affecting a trait
gamete
egg or sperm sex cell that contains a single set of chromosomes, one from each homologous pair
gene locus
specific location of a gene on a chromosome
genetic linkage
tendency for alleles located close together on the same chromosome to be inherited together
genetics
the scientific study of how traits are passed from parents to offspring
genotype
genetic makeup of an organism; an organism's combination of alleles
heterozygous
having different alleles for a gene
homozygous
having identical alleles for a gene
hybrid
an organism that has two different alleles for a trait
incomplete dominance
one allele is not completely dominant over the other which creates a blended phenotype
meiosis
process of creating four diploid gametes from one diploid parent cell
monohybrid cross
mating of two individuals, concentrating on only one definable trait
phenotype
obserable traits of an organism
polygenic inheritance
combined effect of two or more genes on a single characteritc
Punnett square
diagram showing the probabilities of the possible outcomes of a genetic cross
purebred
produce offspring with same form of trait as parent.
recessive
an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present and is only expressed when two alleles are present in an organism's genotype
sex-linked gene
gene located on a sex chromosome
testcross
mating of an individual of unknown genotype but dominant phenotype with a homozygous recessive individual
trait
a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
F1 generation
the first generation of offspring from crossing two organisms in the P generation
F2 generation
offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation.