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A Patriot's History of the U.S. Ch. 1
Questions, definitions and dates from A Patriot's History of the U.S. Chapter 1: The City on the Hill
Terms in this set (61)
Why did Europeans want a better way to reach the far east?
It was a long, difficult, expensive and dangerous journey to take the land route from Asia to the Mediterranean Sea.
What three factors made long distance ocean voyages possible?
Improved technology (astrolabe, overlapping hull, clocks, maps), Political changes that increased the tax base of European monarchies (leading to better war fleets and safer shipping as well as more money to invest), and the Protestant Reformation, which led to evangelical rivalries between Protestants and Catholics.
Dates of Columbus' four voyages
Prince Henry the Navigator
Prince of Portugal who fought the Moors and funded many expeditions down the coast of Africa. Also trained navigators and mapmakers.
Made three voyages, 1492, 1498, and 1502 to discover a sea route to the Far East. Accidentally discovered the Americas and began trade and settlements in the West Indies.
Italian sailor who publicized his writings about the New World and had the two continents named after him.
Vasco de Balboa
Crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and was the first explorer to see the Pacific ocean on the other side of the Americas.
Led an expedition that successfully circumnavigated the globe in 1519-1522, though he did not live to see the successful end of the trip.
Ponce de Leon
Explored Florida's coast looking for the fountain of youth and planted an unsuccessful colony there.
Explored the interior of Mexico in 1518 and discovered the Aztec peoples. Later led another expedition and conquered them in 1521 with the help of native allies.
The "god-like" leader of the Aztec peoples at the time of Cortes.
Hernando de Soto
Explored Florida in 1539-1541 and crossed the Mississippi river looking for gold.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Explored the American Southwest and mapped it while looking for the Seven Cities of Cibola.
Spanish explorers and conquerors who went to the New World to find treasure and convert the native peoples to Christianity.
Cape of Good Hope
The southern tip of Africa, previously named the Cape of Storms.
Portuguese explorer who was blown off course in a storm and accidentally rounded the tip of Africa, opening a profitable new trade route to the Indian Ocean in 1486.
Vasco da Gama
Portugese explorer who first reached India by sailing around Africa in 1498.
Three reasons the Spanish were able to defeat overwhelmingly large armies of native fighters.
1. Mobility: the Spanish had horses and ships. 2. The economic power of Spain allowed fewer people to farm while more people built and developed weapons and farming technology or trained to be soldiers. 3. A long tradition of "tactical adaptation based on individual freedom." The soldiers fought as a team, and had a military hierarchy that allowed them to continue fighting if a leader was killed.
The Aztec capital city, built on a lake linked to land by three causeways. Taken by the Spanish, who drug thirteen brigantines across dry land to besiege the city in 1521.
The descendants of marriages between Spanish settlers and the native populations of the New World, now called Mexican or Hispanic people.
Forts established by the Spanish government after explorers or settlers had 1) been given license to settle a new area, 2) carved out ranches, and 3) founded a mission church.
Why did Spanish colonies in the New World grow so slowly?
People were afraid to emigrate because of pirates, storms, and shipping accidents that took many lives. Also, Spain's mercantilism emphasis on acquiring gold and silver without reinvesting it in businesses discouraged economic growth in the New World.
Why did French colonies in the New World grow slowly?
The climate was colder, French peasants were more satisfied at home, France discouraged colonization in order to recruit more people for military service, and the French limited colonization to avoid conflict with Indian fur-trapping and trading partners.
Jacques Marquette and Rene de La Salle
French missionaries to the Indian nations in the late 1600's.
French explorer who searched for a Northwest Passage to the Pacific and explored the St. Lawrence river as far as present day Montreal.
Samuel de Champlain
A French cartographer and explorer who explored the Great Lakes and founded the fort of Quebec.
Sir Francis Drake
A British "Sea Dog" and agent of Queen Elizabeth who pirated Spanish treasure fleets and played a large part in the defeat of the Spanish armada.
An English pirate who took the Spanish ports of Portobelo and Panama City in the late 1600's.
An economic theory that wealth was fixed (by the amount of gold and silver owned) and that for one nation to get richer, another must get poorer.
French Protestants who fled religious persecution in France, eventually settled in the New World, and whose settlement in Fort Caroline, Florida, was destroyed by the Spanish.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Inherited his brother, Humphrey Gilbert's, land grant and founded the first English colony in the New World on Roanoke Island.
The first English baby born in the New World and one of the members of the lost colony of Roanoke.
Three reasons why English colonies flourished better than French or Spanish colonies in the New World.
1) The appearance of new business practices (like the joint stock company) 2) A culture of technological inquisitiveness and 3) A climate receptive to political and economic risk taking (including the English emphasis on property rights)
Joint Stock Company
A business form that allowed merchants to invest money in exploration and new ventures that allowed profit, but limited liability if the venture failed, and did not dissolve if the primary owner died.
A joint stock company formed to colonize the New World. Given a charter for land in Virginia in 1606, later renamed as the Virginia company. Settled James Forte.
Captain who took charge of Jamestown in 1608 and forced the settlers to work.
Indian chief and ally of the settlers at Jamestown until his death. His daughter, Pocahontas, married an English settler.
Son of Powhatan, led three offensives against the James river settlers, killing around 600. Eventually shot and his people driven from the area.
Cavalier governor of Virginia who was summoned to trial in England for his conduct after Bacon's rebellion.
Made Lord Baltimore in 1632 and given a land grant on Chesapeake Bay by James I. His sons, Cecilius and Leonard Calvert governed the Maryland colony.
Granted land to the heads of household, and additional acreage to every adult member of the family who emigrated with them.
European people who sold themselves into a kind of limited slavery for seven years in exchange for passage to the New World.
Nathaniel Bacon, Jr.
Planter and outspoken politician, he demanded the Governor appoint him leader of a commission against hostile Indians. Raided a group of friendly Indians, nearly started a war, led a rebellion against the capital and burned most of the buildings at Jamestown.
The major plantation crop of the Virginia and North Carolina colonies.
The major plantation crop of the South Carolina colonies, followed by Indigo.
Puritan Separatist and leader of the colony at Plymouth.
Document written by the Plymouth colonists outlining their agreement for government and stating their desire to remain loyal to the crown of England.
Puritan governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony. Called the "Moses of the Puritan Exodus" from England.
A war fought between Indians and an alliance of troops from Connecticut and Massachusetts and their Indian allies in 1637.
The colonists' armed groups for defense that met periodically in peace time to drill and practice fighting, bringing their own weapons and supplies.
Problems with militia system
Insubordination due to individualism, not wanting to fight away from home, deserting in the middle of campaigns to attend crops or go home, lack of professional training, and a false sense of confidence in their military strength.
Massachusetts minister who argued for separation of church and state, was eventually thrown out of the colony, and founded Rhode Island as a home for religious dissenters.
Religious dissenter and bible teacher who held there was no relationship between works and faith, was expelled from Massachusetts, and was eventually killed by Indians.
A Christian religious group founded by George Fox who taught nonviolence, allowed people (even women) to speak freely in church, and eventually became strong proponents of the abolition movement.
Settled New Amsterdam, bought Long Island from the Indians, conquered by the English in 1664 when the colony was renamed New York.
Inherited lands in England and Ireland and was given a land grant in the New World that he named Pennsylvania. Founded Philadelphia, dealt well and fairly with the Indians, and believed in religious tolerance, even for Quakers.
Governor of the Dominion of New England, appointed by James II, and later deposed and shipped home by the colonists.
Dominion of New England
Governing body of the New England and Middle colonies forced on the colonists by James II after he rescinded all their charters in 1686.
Head of a revolt against the Dominion of New England that succeeded in ousting the monarch-appointed governer for one year. Later hanged with his son-in-law after British officials arrived to quash the rebellion.
A political party in England and the colonies that supported independence from centralized political, religious, economic and military authority.
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