Sociology of Film Pt. 2
Terms in this set (51)
Big 5 movie production companies
paramount, warner bros, rko, mgm, fox
Why did movie profits plummet in 1947-1957?
post war suburbanization and television
How did movie producers stress product differentiation from tv?
more color, big screen, teen exploitation, domestic art films, soft porn
Central product unit system
Firm>top management>central producer>operational producer>director>lead technicans and assist directors>technicians per crew.profit maximizing goals and central producer took over what was the director/camera man roles.
.>top management> producer>genredirector>lead technician and assist directors>technicians per crew. individual comp.containing the source of labor and materials only able to make one genre.
firm>top management (packaging group)>various studio resouruces(producer, director, lead tech assist direct....) after ww11, independent film companies, producer organized film project, financing/ equipment, laborers, through easy arrangment with major studio.
characteristics of art film
causes ambiguous or impersonal events in search of cause, subordination to realism, subordnation of tidy narrative and end to, no clear or pure genre ,often obtrusive in style
Kapsis theory of reputation
Critical discourse about genre, critical discourse about cinema more generally, collective action, self-promotion, influential sponsorship
director as author, autership as thematic self-expressiveness, and stylistic self-expressiveness and flair
Collective action of Hitchcock
sel-promotion>biographical legend>critical response
Kapsis' Theory phases
failed thriller, auteur classic, sexist classic
violated expectations, artistic aspirations and technical deficiences
masteful expression of hitchcock's therapautic theme
films that show suffering of women over male dominated system
Internationalization of cultural objects
changing opportunity structure outside relevant art world; institutionalization of resources and practices within art world, legitimating ideologies
Bordwell assessment of new american cinema
conglomeration ownership not altered practices much, fosters creation of blockbuster films, larger productions increased shooting time
Bordwell assessment continued
script still blueprint, work still subdivided, quality remains main concern. classical style remains dominant style. New American cinema: most directors remain young, none significantly changed mode of film production, universities teach old dominant standard, hollywood always known for technological advancement, not distinct style but "stylistic assimilation"
birth, growth, decline, and death of organizations and influences organzational actions create opportunity structures
Historical Transformation of Movie Staff
1930-40 staff salaried employees of major corporations>>>70s plus hired for single project ogranizations
state-licensed employment agency finds work for writer, actor, or director on film/television for 10% commission of client's earnings
Talent agencies shape laor market by....
empowering individual market participants and promoting package deals of their own
Benefit of talent agencies
in 90s 50% employed without representation while 70% employed with. agency reps 4x more likely to be employed. Agencies favor young white males
ascriptive characteristics, such as gender and age, may interact with one another with respect to similar outcomes (ex. occupational outcome)
1/4 of popular female stars identified in motion picture herald poll models prior to acting careers, none of men were
Female and men careers
female actors have more modest roles than males in film and gap grows with age. may correlate with other careers of high public presentation
implication of older women in cinemA
cultural devaluation of older women in American society
Narrative and cinematic spectacle
action/motion, performance, spectacular vista, emotional intensity, fx, violence and bloodshed, pure forms, impure
cultural object only fully realized in audience response
Responses different across subculture
complicate assesments of artistic value, vary because films function as status symbols and cultural capital as well as works of art and entertainment, vary with social horizons,
Inteleectualization of art world three factors
changing opportunity structure outside relevant art world, institutionalization of resources and practices within art world, legitimating ideologies
1.clear individual causes
2. subordination of time and place to narrative
3. clear narrative development and tidy conclusion
4. tied to conventional genres
5. unobtrusive style
1. causes ambiguous or impersonal, events in search of causes
2. sub'n of time, place and narrative to realism of complex character, psychological states, theme athurial voice
3. sub'n of tidy narrative/ end to psychologically complexity, psychological mood
4. weakly generic, pastiche or new
5.often obstrusive in novelty, aestheticism, or obstrusive narration
compliments story logic, challenges individual cuasation and narrative centrality
1. action or motion (narrative and cinematic spectacle)
vehicle chases, explosions slow motion action, rapidly edited action stylized incredibility dodging bullets
out of scale scenes scenes of thousands historical vistas natural and actual
violence and bloodshed
entry and exit wounds, shots in the face dismemberment
pure set pieces of violent action spectacle over narrative pure adrenalin
new hollywood (more art orchc)
bowden claims that new hollywood borrow european art cinema. classical film style and codified genres swallow up art film borrowings
a talent agency is a state licensed employment agency that finds work for a writer, actor, or director. they shape the labor market by differentially empowering individual market participants, and promoting package deals of their own.
talent agency continued/ core agencies
reped by a core or elite agency or elite agency provides network of contracting that defines the market. core agencies are similar to the vertical structure of the studio sytem of the 20th cent. only core agencies augment the pay of employed film workers that they rep. relative to other cinematic labor. access to agencies are discrimantory, favoring, young white males. prior success is generally effaced by by core agency advantage
is the idea that the main effects of devalued characteristics have an interactive effect that creates an outcome more neg. than one would expect frm main effects alone. age, sex, time period have significant neg. effects on the avg. star pres of an actor. number of acadmy awards effect it in a pos. way
20s-50s, stars had long term contracts
studios produced specific films for each star.
women starred in all film genres. 30s-40s.
men were casted in western and adventure films.
decline of the studio after 48
stars was concentrated for single projects
studios no longer developed films for specific fem stars
women films virtually disappeared
adventure films most pop.
how does a type of cultural object regarded as an art or potential.. 3 factors
1.changing opportunity structures outside the relevant art world. changing standards of ref. (like genres- and tv shows) and audiences (like a more educated public)
2.institutionalizations of resources and practices within the artworld, better defined tokens of recognition (awards) better pools of support (universities) more sharply define targets of recognition. (directors as film makers)
3. legitimating ideologies- supportive, intellectualizing cultural fields.
kapsis theory of reputation
genre- expectations-critical judgment
critical discourse about genre- genre shapes expectations and thus critical judgment. critical discourse about cinema 60's schema for C.J wnt frm "entertainment value" and "social and literary" seriousness to autteur theory criteria. collective action
self promotion- the director herself
influential sponsorshipsupportive publicity frm influential film work
gender power a symmetry
women objectified b/c men were in control (scopophilia)
women is displayed as an object for the characters in the film and viewers (voyerism)
films convey meaning through the use of codes/ conventions
social world shapes culture /objects. culture/objects reflect and tell us about society.
forces theaters to take a group of movies together, rather than allow them to pick.
reception and response theories
stress the dependence of cultural objects upon their audiences