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24 terms

Biology Chapter 12 Vocab

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Nucleotides
molecules that make up DNA
Histones
protein that is bound to DNA and coiled around
Nuclesomes
when the DNA is coiled around several histones
Base pairing
bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine
Replication
copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
Helicase
an enzyme used in separating strands of DNA
DNA polymerase
an enzyme that binds nucleotides together to form a DNA molecule by following the procedure of base pairing
Genes
are coded DNA instructions that control the production of proteins within the cell
Messenger RNA
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
Ribosomal RNA
RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
Transfer RNA
RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
Transcription
Process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into the complementary sequence of RNA
RNA polymerase
Enzyme that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
Promoter
region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
Intron
intervening sequence of DNA; does not code for a protein
Exon
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
Codon
three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
Translation
decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
Anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
Polypeptide chain
a sequence of amino acids that make different types of proteins
Mutation
are changes in the genetic material
Point Mutation
mutations involving changes in one or a few nucleotides
Frameshift mutation
mutation that shifts the sequence by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
Polyploidy
condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes