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molecules that make up DNA


protein that is bound to DNA and coiled around


when the DNA is coiled around several histones

Base pairing

bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine


copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA


an enzyme used in separating strands of DNA

DNA polymerase

an enzyme that binds nucleotides together to form a DNA molecule by following the procedure of base pairing


are coded DNA instructions that control the production of proteins within the cell

Messenger RNA

RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell

Ribosomal RNA

RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes

Transfer RNA

RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis


Process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into the complementary sequence of RNA

RNA polymerase

Enzyme that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription


region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA


intervening sequence of DNA; does not code for a protein


expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein


three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid


decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain


group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon

Polypeptide chain

a sequence of amino acids that make different types of proteins


are changes in the genetic material

Point Mutation

mutations involving changes in one or a few nucleotides

Frameshift mutation

mutation that shifts the sequence by inserting or deleting a nucleotide


condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes

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