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Terms in this set (100)
Sunlight is a type of ________ energy.
Which of the following are produced during the light reactions of photosynthesis?
ATP, NADPH, O2
The light reactions occur in the ________, while the Calvin cycle occurs in the ________.
thylakoid membranes . . . stroma
Which of the following is an example of a photoautotroph?
cyanobacteria in freshwater and marine ecosystems
Which of the following statements concerning the role of redox reactions in photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true?
In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is reduced to form sugar, while in respiration, sugar is oxidized to form carbon dioxide.
A packet of light energy is called a
Which of the following molecules is both a reactant and a product of photosynthesis?
have mitochondria and chloroplasts
Autotrophs that utilize light as their energy source are
Of the following wavelengths of light, which would you expect to be reflected or transmitted by chlorophyll a?
Which of the following statements about the absorption of photons by pigment molecules is true?
The release of energy by the excited electron can be as heat, light, or fluorescence
Clusters of light-gathering pigments in a photosystem
pass energy to the reaction center.
Anything that prevents ATP formation will most likely
result in cell death
Which of the following statements regarding membrane function is false?
The plasma membrane is the control center of the cell.
When a cell uses chemical energy to perform work, it uses the energy released from a(n) ________ reaction to drive a(n) ________ reaction.
exergonic . . . endergonic
Many of the enzymes that control a deep-sea firefly squid's ability to produce light energy from chemical energy are located
Most of the functions of a cell membrane, including transport and enzymatic function, are performed by
According to ________, energy cannot be created or destroyed.
the first law of thermodynamics
Kinetic energy differs from chemical energy in that
kinetic energy is the energy of a moving object, whereas chemical energy is the potential energy of molecules.
allow water to cross the plasma membrane via facilitated diffusion.
Plasma membranes are selectively permeable. This means that
the plasma membrane allows some substances to enter or leave a cell more easily than others.
Phagocytosis is to eating as pinocytosis is to
What is the basic difference between exergonic and endergonic reactions?
Exergonic reactions release energy; endergonic reactions absorb it.
In the reaction A → B + C + heat
the potential energy of the products is less than that of the reactant.
In the lab, you use a special balloon that is permeable to water, but not sucrose, to make an "artificial cell." The balloon is filled with a solution of 20% sucrose and 80% water and is immersed in a beaker containing a solution of 40% sucrose and 60% water. Which of the following will occur?
Water will leave the balloon.
Tay-Sachs disease results from the malfunction of
Which of the following statements about internal membranes in eukaryotic cells is false?
In eukaryotic cells, internal membranes standardize the internal environment of all cellular organelles
A woman is having trouble becoming pregnant. Examination of her partner's sperm indicates that dynein feet are missing from the flagella in his sperm cells. A physician explains that this could interfere with fertility by
preventing the sperm from swimming to the egg cell.
The two main functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum are the production of
membrane and proteins secreted by the cell.
Secretory proteins are
released from the cell through the plasma membrane.
The endosymbiosis hypothesis is supported by all of the following pieces of evidence, except the fact that
mitochondria use ATP like prokaryotes.
Cilia differ from flagella in that
cilia are typically more numerous and shorter than flagella.
Most animal cells are
embedded in an extracellular matrix.
Which of the following structures is exclusively associated with prokaryotic cells?
Which of the following cells has the greatest surface-to-volume ratio?
Which of the following would be most affected by a mutation that prevented cells from forming tight junctions?
integrity of the inner lining of the digestive tract
It is essential for heart muscle cells to beat in a coordinated fashion. The cell junctions that would best facilitate this are
Which of the following statements about lysosomes is false?
Lysosomes synthesize proteins from the recycled amino acids.
A mutant protist is found in which some mitochondria lack an inner mitochondrial membrane. Which of the following pathways would be completely disrupted in these mitochondria?
In fermentation, ________ is ________.
NADH . . . oxidized
Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true?
Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, and cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria.
During cellular respiration, electrons move through a series of electron carrier molecules. Which of the following statements about this process is true?
Molecular oxygen is reduced when it accepts electrons and forms water.
Which of the following statements regarding the chemical grooming of pyruvate is false?
Each pyruvate molecule has a CO2 added and then joins with an NADH.
During redox reactions,
electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance.
Which of the following statements about the energy yields from cellular respiration is true?
Cellular respiration is more efficient at harnessing energy from glucose than car engines are at harnessing energy from gasoline.
Respiration ________, and cellular respiration ________.
is gas exchange . . . produces ATP
When proteins are used as a source of energy for the body, the proteins
are converted mainly into intermediates of glycolysis or the citric acid cycle.
Rotenone is a poison commonly added to insecticides. Insects exposed to rotenone will die because
they will no longer be able to produce adequate amounts of ATP.
To obtain energy from starch and glycogen, the body must begin by
hydrolyzing both starch and glycogen to glucose.
Which of the following statements regarding glycolysis is false?
Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system because it is the most efficient metabolic pathway for ATP synthesis.
The phenotypic ratio resulting from a dihybrid cross showing independent assortment is expected to be
Which of the following statements regarding prenatal testing is false?
Chorionic villus sampling is typically performed later in the pregnancy than amniocentesis.
Varieties of plants in which self-fertilization produces offspring that are identical to the parents are referred to as
Mendel conducted his most memorable experiments on
Which of the following is an example of incomplete dominance in humans?
Which of the following statements best represents the theory of pangenesis developed by Hippocrates?
Particles called pangenes, which originate in each part of an organism's body, collect in the sperm or eggs and are passed on to the next generation.
Using a six-sided die, what is the probability of rolling either a 5 or a 6?
1/6 + 1/6 = 1/3
What is meant by the statement that "male bees are fatherless"?
Male bees develop from unfertilized eggs.
Which of the following is essentially the opposite of pleiotropy?
A color-blind woman marries a man who is not color-blind. All of their sons, but none of their daughters, are color-blind. Which of the following statements correctly explains these results?
The gene for color vision is found on the X chromosome.
Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling allow for ________ and ________ of the fetus so that it can be tested for abnormalities.
karyotyping . . . biochemical testing
The sex chromosome complement of a normal human female is
Most people afflicted with recessive disorders are born to parents who were
not affected at all by the disease.
Which of the following statements about ribosomes is false?
The ribosomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are the same in structure and function.
Which of the following is a function of a tRNA molecule?
joining to only one specific type of amino acid
The shape of a DNA molecule is most like
a twisted rope ladder.
Which of the following takes place during translation?
the conversion of genetic information from the language of nucleic acids to the language of proteins
Which of the following statements regarding RNA is false?
RNA uses the sugar dextrose.
Which of the following statements about the treatment or prevention for a prion infection is true?
There is no known treatment or cure for prion infections.
Which of the following is not needed in order for translation to occur?
Which of the following statements regarding the flow of genetic information is false?
Transcription occurs in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
is the direct transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another.
The way that genetic material of a bacteriophage enters a bacterium is most like the way that
a drug is injected with a hypodermic needle.
Which of the following statements regarding the structure of DNA is false?
The sequence of nucleotides along the length of a DNA strand is restricted by the base-pairing rules.
Viral DNA incorporated into host cell DNA is known as a(n)
A karyotype is most like
photographs of every couple at a high school prom.
Which of the following statements regarding the cell-cycle control system is false?
The cell-cycle control system operates independently of the growth factors.
How many generations does it take to develop a new plant species by polyploidy?
Independent orientation of chromosomes at metaphase I results in an increase in the number of
possible combinations of characteristics.
With the exception of identical twins, siblings who have the same two biological parents are likely to look similar, but not identical, to each other because they have
a similar but not identical combination of genes.
The genetic material is duplicated during
the S phase.
Which of the following statements is false?
An X chromosome is an autosome.
When animal cells are grown in a petri dish, they typically stop dividing once they have formed a single, unbroken layer on the bottom of the dish. This arrest of division is an example of
Cancer is not usually inherited because
the chromosomal changes in cancer are usually confined to somatic cells.
Eukaryotic chromosomes differ from prokaryotic chromosomes in that they
are housed in a membrane-enclosed nucleus.
Which of the following types of organisms commonly demonstrates polyploidy?
Which of the following shows the greatest promise as a cancer chemotherapy agent?
a drug that prevents mitotic spindle from forming
Which of the following statements regarding sexual and asexual reproduction is true?
Sexual reproduction is more likely to increase genetic variation than is asexual reproduction.
The tortoiseshell pattern on a cat
results from X chromosome inactivation.
Which of the following statements about proto-oncogenes is false?
A mutation in a tumor-suppressor gene can stop cell division immediately.
The lac operon in E. coli
prevents lactose-utilizing enzymes from being expressed when lactose is absent from the environment.
A single cell, the zygote, can develop into an entirely new organism with many different specialized cells. Which of the following statements about this process is false?
Additional genetic information for the formation of specialized cells is passed on to the developing embryo via the placenta.
Why can some plants be cloned from a single cell?
Plant cells can dedifferentiate and give rise to all of the specialized cells required to produce an entire plant.
Which of the following statements about microarrays is false?
Microarrays use tiny portions of double-stranded RNA fragments from a large number of genes.
Which of the following mammals has not yet been cloned and brought through the complete gestation cycle?
The expression of the tryptophan operon is controlled by
a repressor that is active when it binds to tryptophan.
Which of the following is likely to occur in E. coli cells that are grown in skim milk?
The trp repressor is activated and the cells will produce lactose-utilizing enzymes.
Adult stem cells have limited therapeutic potential
because their developmental potential is limited to certain tissues.
The basis of cellular differentiation is
selective gene expression.
Which of the following mechanisms of controlling gene expression occurs outside of the nucleus?
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