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Terms in this set (53)
The relative proportions of fat and lean mass in an individual
Importance of BC
Assess health risk
Assess effectiveness of interventions
To set weight classifications for athletes
Fat Mass (FM)
The absolute amount of body fat
Includes all extractable lipids from adipose and other tissue
Fat-free Mass (FFM)
Lipid-free chemicals and tissues
Water, muscle, bone, connective tissue, organs
Relative Body Fat Percentage (%BF)
FM as a percentage of total body mass (TBM)
Muscle vs. Fat Tissue
Muscle tissue may comprise up to 50% of TBM, fat tissue can expand to 80% TBM
Specialized for storage of energy in the form of triglycerides (fat)
Fat accounts for 80% of energy stored in the body
Adipocytes = fat cells
Two Types of Fat Cells
White and Brown Adipocytes
30-50 billion fat cells in an adult of normal weight.
White Adipose Cells
Most fat is stored here in one large fat droplet, nuclei are flat and on the outer rim of cell. Can expand in size until fat is used.
Brown Adipose Cells
Contain small fat droplets, more vascularized, nuclei are more centrally located, more mitochondria
Better for heat generation
Plays trivial role in weight maintenance
Increase in cell size
Adipocytes reach capacity and new ones form, usually occurs when TBF exceeds 30 kg.
Increase in cell number
75-80 billion fat cells
Once they are created they cannot be destroyed, the size can only decrease.
An enlarged fat cell can cause buldging between connective fibers that keeps skin attached to the body, creates a dimply effect
Body Fat Regulation
Sex hormones, local factors, genetics regulate _______. Fat is continually flowing in and out of cells at all times regardless of nutritional state.
Fat flows in and out of cells in the form of molecules called _______.
We store fat in the form of _______. These are too big to pass in and out of cells.
Glycerol + 3 fatty acids = _______.
Two Types of Adipose Tissue Metabolism
Lipogenesis and Lipolysis
Deposition of fat. Carbohydrates and protein from food are converted to triglycerides in the liver and stored in Adipose tissue. INSULIN (and glucagon- pancreas).
Chemical decomposition and release of fat from adipose tissue. This predominates over Lipogenesis when extra energy is required.
Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL)
Insulin stimulates _______ which acts to break down triglycerides to free fatty acids so they can enter the adipocyte.
Hormone Sensitive Lipase (HSL)
Multi-enzyme complex which hydrolyzes the triglyceride into free fatty acids and glycerol.
Fat in the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines, muscles, CNS, bone marrow. Normal physiologic function requires this. Women need 12%, men need 3%
Major fat depot consisting of fat accumulation in adipose tissues. Has Visceral and Subcutaneous fat. Men and women have similar amounts, 12%:15%
Essential Fat + Storage Fat
Two Locations of Adipocytes
Subcutaneous and Visceral
Adipose tissue beneath the skin
Adipose tissue within and surrounding organs.
Direct Assessment of BC
Chemical analysis of the body; human cadaver.
Indirect Assessment of BC
Estimation of body composition by hydrostatic weighing, simple anthropometric measurements or other procedures.
Body Mass Index (BMI) Equation
Body Mass/height squared (kg/m2)
Standardized techniques to quantify or predict body size, weight, proportion, and shape.
Body mass per unit of body volume
Archimedes' principle of water displacement to estimate body density. Hydrostatic weighing, underwater weighing. GOLDEN STANDARD.
Height and Weight Tables
Designed to assess overweightness based on sex and bone frame size. Many problems.
Problems with Height and Weight Tables
Invalidated estimates of frame sizes
Data from white populations
Mortality data not related to obesity
No assessment of BC
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Higher association with body fat and disease risk than height-weight tables. Still does not account for % body fat. (Mislabeled fit person as overweight) Everyone can calculate.
Underweight < or = 18.5
Normal Weight = 18.5-24.9
Overweight = 25-29.9
Obesity > or = 30
Class I 30-34.9
Class II 35-39.9
Class III 40
Can be used to determine health risk because abdominal obesity (visceral fat) increases health risk.
Waist-to-hip Ratio (WHR)
Can be used as a simple method for determining body fat distribution
Upper body (abdomen), visceral, hard fat, males
Lower body (thighs, buttocks), subcutaneous, soft fat, females
Common Methods of Body Fat % Measurement
Underwater weighing, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA), BodPod, Skinfold Thickness, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
Measures body density (mass/volume) to determine body fat. Fat tissue is less dense than lean tissue. Closer to 1.1 g/cm3, the leaner the person is.
BodPod (Air Displacement Plethysmography- ADP)
Uses air displacement instead of water to measure body density, mass determined by stepping on a scale, uses air displacement to measure body volume
Measured in millimeters with precision calpiers, primarily determined by subcutaneous fat layer. Obtained from right side of the body.
Common Skinfold Sites
Triceps, Biceps, Subscapular, Suprailiac Anterior, Chest, Abdominal, Anterior Thigh
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)
Determines total body water, FFM contains a relatively constant proportion of water, FFM can be estimated from total body water. Electrodes through water conduction or special scale. Higherthe resistance, higher the %BF.
No perfect method for measurement, but can use these procedures to monitor progress.
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