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10: Renaissance and Discovery

A.P. European History - Olstad D.C. Everest High School Kagan Chapter 10
popolo gorsso
newly rich merchant class, capitalists and bankers in Florence, challenged grandi for political power
old rich nobles and merchants of Florence
popolo minuto
"little people", lower economic classes, Florence
Ciompi Revolt
-revolt of the popolo minuto
-caused by feuding between grandi and popolo gorsso, social anarchy from Black Death, collapse of Bardi and Peruzzi banking house
-resulted in four-year reign of the lower Florentine classes
Cosimo de Medici
wealthiest Florentine, controlled city internally, signeria loyal to him, head of Office of Public Debt
Lorenzo the Magnificent
grandson of Cosimo, ruled Florence in totalitarian fashion
governing council of Florence made up of eight members, chosen from most powerful guilds
-strongman created by dominant groups to maintain law and order
-given executive, military, and judicial authority, maintained business activities
law enforcer, job to keep normal flow of business activity
merchant armies obtained by the despots through military brokers
search of truth for the sake of truth, scholary study of Latin and Greek classics and of the ancient Church Fathers, secular, opposed scholasticisim, used vernacular language
rationalize the universe through the eyes of the church, researched old works and maintained traditional beliefs
Francesco Petrarch
-'father of humanism'
-one of the first writers to write in the vernacular language, created Petrarch style of sonnet
-wrote Letters to the Ancient Dead, Africa, and Lives of Illustrius Men
Dante Alighieri
Italian humanist, wrote Vita Nuava and Divine Comedy
Giovanni Boccaccio
-wrote Decameron, a social commentary and sympathetic look at human behavior
-assembled encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology
Baldassare Castlione
-wrote Book of the Courtier, a guide for nobility at the court of Urbino
-had highest ideas of Italian humanism
flattering view of human nature, distinguishes between an eternal sphere of being and the perishable world of humans, reason belonging to the former
Christine de Pisan
-noblewoman, daughter of Charles V, married then widowed
-educated, wrote lyric poetry to support herself, became well known woman of letters
-wrote The City of Ladies
Lorenzo Valla
-humanist critic of tradition
-wrote Elegance of the Latin language (standard Renaissance text on Latin philology
-became hero to protestants, defended predestination
-said Donation of Constantine contained anachronistic terms, pointed out errors of the Latin Vulgate, still loyal to church
Leonardo da Vinci
talented painter, military engineer, did many scientific expiriments, anatomy, botanist, inventive mind
-painted Mona Lisa
-kind, fameous for tender Madonna paintings
-painted fresco School of Athens
-sculpted David, painted fresco in Cistine Chapel
-did almost everything himself, later works more complex mannerism style in sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
Classical Art
-depicts people doing real tasks, emotionless, idealized and perfect, active body, nude, no sense of background
-examples: Bathing Venus, Grave Stele of Hegeso, man throwing discus
Gothic/ Medieval Art
-religious subject, flat looking figures, important figures large, fully clothed, no effort to create background, gold and red coloring, no sense of age
-examples: Madonna and Child in Magesty, Bateux Tapestry
Renaissance Art
-use themes from both of the other arts, expressions, shading, different points of light, 3D, background
-examples: Mona Lisa, Madonna and Child With Two Angels, Venus and Adonis, Pieta
Johann Guttenburg
invented printing press
Desiderius Erasmus
-'prince of humanisam'
-wrote Coloquies about good manners, wrote Adages about proverbs
-wanted to unite humanist and Christian beliefs, disliked Scholastics and their disputation overshadowing Christian practices
-wrote Philosophia Christi to summarize his beliefs
-produced Greek edition of New Testimate and translated it into Latin
-church disliked Erasmus's writings, placed them on the Index of Forbidden Books
Thomas More
humanist, Englishman, wrote Utopia, critisized temporary society, catholic, beheaded
-Spanish warrior who came to new world, goal to find the cities of gold, found silver
-Aztecs thought Cortes and his crew were gods and welcomed them, Aztecs fell to Cortes, he exploited their people and resources
found Inca empire in Peru, allied with other natives against them, held Incan leader for ransom, exploited people and resources
-Spanish explorers and warriors, worked natives to death, motivated by 3 G's (God Gold Glory), exploited natives and resources
-second and third born sons who didn't inherit titles
one-fifth of all silver found in new world went to crown
-contract between conquistadors and Spanish crown
-certain number of natives worked for conquistadors for a certain amount of time
kinder servitude for natives, every male laberor had to give certain amount of years of servitude to conquistadors
Renaissance Women
-life of most women marriage and raising children
-wealthy women married earlier and concieved earlier and more often than peasant women, hired wet nurses
-high mortality rate amongst children, women punished for having illegitimate children, some committed infanticide
-daughters had to get dowery
-rural renaissance did housework and some farmwork, only earned half as much as men
-urban renaissance women often worked trades, apprentaced and taught by their fathers, brothers, and husbands
-poor women often became servants and laberors
-some daughters joined strict convents
-noble women sometimes ruled as surrogates in absence of male heir
Witch Hunts
-women who practiced folk styles, spoke out against men or church, poor, uneducated
-accused of having pact with devil, tortured until they confessed, put to death
-100,000 or 900,000 persecuted during witch hunts
the Indies
China, India, and Indonesia, silk jewel and spice trade
Bartholomeu Dias
Portugese, sailed to Cape of Good Hope (tip of Africa)
Vasco da Gama
Portugese, sailed around Africa to reach India's west coast
Christopher Columbus
made four voyages from Spain to the Americas (mostly Carribean islands) between 1492 and 1504
Pedro Cabral
Portugese, ships blown off course, ended up in South America (Brazil), then continued to India
Ferdinand Magellan
sailed around the world, died in Indies, crew finished voyage
-Florentine diplomat, military strategist, politicap philosopher, humanist
-believed Italy needed political unity, independance, and patriotism
-wrote The Prince and Discources on Livy
-believed that salvation of Italy required a cunning dictator
-held office 60 years Medicis didn't control Florence
northern Renaissance Christian, southern Renaissance Pagan and secular
Treaty of Lodi
brought Milan and Naples into alliance with Florence, stood against Venice and Papal states
Ludovico il Moro
Milanese despot, Naples prepared to attack Milan, Moro appealed for French aid and invited them to revive their dynastic claims to Naples, also had claims to Milan, Moro joined League of Venice against French invasion
Medici despot who lost Florence to Savonarola, tried not to be taken over by giving Florence properties away, forced into exile
Florentine monk, preached that the people had become to obsessed with worldly goods and that the French attack was their punishment by God, became ruler, burned Florentine art, ruled for four years, dethroned by pope, executed
Pope Alexander VI (Borgia)
corrupt, tried to secure political base in Romagna, secured French favor by abandoning League of Venice so that it was weak enough to be taken over, able to conqer Romagna
Pope Julius II
warrior pope, concerned about land, brought papacy to peak of military and diplomatic power, placed conquered land under papal jurisdiction, secular papacy, drove Venetians out of Romagna, formed Holy League with Aragon and Venice to drive out France
Concordat of Bologna
victory for French in third attempt to take Italy, gave French king control over French clergy in return for French recognition of the pope's authority
New Monarchs
division of the basic powers of government between teh king and his semi-autonomous vassals, representative assemblies evolved, nobility and clergy in decline, most powers given to king and exersized by his agents, taxes war and law became national matters, more centralized, created standing national armies, middle and lower classes taxed more, levied direct taxes on peasants
Louis XI
defeated England Empire in France and defeat fo Burgundy, Louis and Hababurg emperor Maximilian I divided Burgundy lands, Louis also inherited Angevin, doubled the size of France, expanded trade and industry, created national postal system and silk industry
Isabella and Ferdinand
united Castile and Aragon by marriage, two remained constitutionally seperate, secured their boarders, ventured abroad militarily, Christianized all of Spain, Spanish Inquisition, conquered Moors in Granada, won allegance of Hermandad, middle class gained power, Isabella sponsered Colombus
Francisco Jimenez Cisneros
Spanish humanist, served Catholic church, founded University of Alcala, printed Greek edition of New Testimant, wrote Complatension Polygot Bible
Henry VII
England, establiched stable evonomy, lowered taxes, Court of the Star Chamber, married Elizabeth of York, made peace with Scotland, rarely went to war, formed Royal Council and gave postions to middle class
Court of the Star Chamber
court for the judgement and punishment of nobles, king's councillors sat as judges, Henry used it to advantage of crown, confiscated lands and fortunes of nobles
Holy Roman Empire
territorial ruleers resisted efforts of unity, land still divided amongst all sons, princes and cities worked together to create law and order, Reichstag seven member electoral college that also functioned as administrative body, powers of emperor negotiated with every election