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Section 1: Review Questions
Terms in this set (68)
A solution that does not cause a change in cell volume; one that contains 300 mOsmol/L of nonpenetrating solutes, regardless of the concentration of membrane-penetrating solutes present
A solution that causes cells to shrink; one that contains greater than 300 mOsmol/L of nonpenetrating solutes, regardless of the concentration of membrane-penetrating solutes present
A solution that causes cells to swell; one that contains less than 300 mOsmol/L of nonpenetrating solutes, regardless of the concentration of membrane-penetrating solutes present
a solution containing 300 mOsmol/L of solute, regardless of its composition of membrane-penetrating and nonpenetrating solutes
A solution containing greater than 300 mOsmol/L of solutes, regardless of its composition of membrane-penetrating and nonpenetrating solutes
A solution containing less than 300 mOsmol/L of solutes, regardless of its composition of membrane-penetrating and nonpenetrating solutes
Facilitated diffusion (passive transport)
Movement of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration ("downhill") using a protein transporter
Primary active transport
Movement of particles from a lower concentration to a higher concentration ("uphill") and requires ATP
Secondary active transport
Movement of particles from a lower concentration to a higher concentration ("uphill") but does not require ATP
Simple diffusion (passive transport)
Passive movement from high to low concentration
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Tonicity refers to ___
Amount of nonpenetrating solutes
Osmoticity refers to ___
Amount of total solutes
How much of the human body is made up of water?
How much of the body's water is inside of the cells?
How much of the body's water is outside of the cells?
How much of the extracellular fluid is contained within the cardiovascular system or plasma volume?
What is the extracellular fluid located between cells called?
Cells contain ___
Why aren't there transport proteins for lipids in the plasma membrane?
The plasma membrane is lipid soluble
Glucose enters the cell by ___
Which protein transporters are used to transport glucose across the membrane?
What is the main difference between primary and secondary active transport?
Primary uses energy in the form of ATP to move particles uphill, but secondary moves particles downhill using a mediator
Why doesn't glucose diffuse across the plasma membrane?
It's a large polar molecule
What is osmosis?
Diffusion of water
How does oxygen enter the cell?
Why is oxygen able to diffuse across the membrane?
In the homeostatic reflex arc, changes in regulated variables are transmitted to the integrating center by the ___
In the homeostatic reflex arc, ___ transmits responses away from the integrated center
In the homeostatic reflex arc, what is an effector?
The response output by the integrated center
In the homeostatic reflex arc, the ___ is the homeostatic equilibrium
Why can't amino acids cross the cell membrane by diffusion?
They're charged and too large to fit through channels
How does water diffuse into the cell?
How do ions pass through the cell membrane?
What kind of ion channel opens or closes when molecules bind to them?
What kind of ion channel opens or closes when the membrane potential changes?
What kind of ion channel opens or closes when the membrane is stretched?
What is osmolarity defined as?
The total number of particles of solute per liter
Ion channels allow certain ions to pass through, but do not act as ___
Ligand-gated ion channels are ion channels that are also ___
All transmembrane channels are ___
How does caffeine increase the level of cAMP?
By decreasing the levels of phosphodiesterase
Why are G-proteins not transmembrane proteins?
They're located on the inner (cytosolic) surface of the plasma membrane, but don't span the entire membrane
When the first messenger attaches to the receptor, the receptor protein changes shape and ___
Activates the G-protein
Once G-proteins are activated, they activate the effector protein, which is ___
The enzyme adenylyl cyclase or adenylate cyclase
The activated adenylyl cyclase then catalyzes the conversion of some cytosolic ATP molecules to the second messenger ___
cyclic AMP or cAMP
What will happen once cAMP is inside of the cell?
A protein kinase, known as protein kinase A is activated. This will catalyze the phosphorylation of other proteins which will eventually lead to the cell's response
What enzyme is used to control the strength of the cellular response caused by cAMP by breaking it down?
Channels, pumps, and membrane receptors are all ___
What is a paracrine agent?
A chemical messenger released by a cell into interstitial fluid where it diffuses to neighboring target cells
What is an autocrine agent?
A chemical messenger released by a cell into interstitial fluid where it acts upon the cell that secreted it
What is a hormone?
A chemical messenger released by an endocrine cell into the bloodstream
What is a neurotransmitter?
A chemical messenger released by a neuron into a synaptic cleft in order to affect a muscle, gland, or nerve cell
What characteristic determines what a chemical receptor is called?
Where it is released from and how it travels
What is receptor specificity?
A binding site reacts with only the first messengers that of a similar shape or specific to a certain shape
What is receptor saturation?
A receptor has reached its max binding site capacity
What is receptor competition?
Two different molecules that can bind to the same binding site
Of the three ways in which receptor activation can influence membrane channels, which takes the longest amount of time?
When a second messenger is involved (several seconds)
Of the three ways in which receptor activation can influence membrane channels, which takes the shortest amount of time?
When ion channels are apart of the receptor (~1 msec)
Of the three ways in which receptor activation can influence membrane channels, which takes the medium amount of time?
When the effector protein coupled to the G-protein is a channel (~300 msec)
The Na^+ / K^+ ATPase pump in the cell membrane, pumps K^+ ___
Into the cell
The Na^+ / K^+ ATPase pump in the cell membrane, pumps Na^+ ___
Out of the cell
K^+ is pumped into the cell at a rate of ___ ions
Na^+ is pumped into the cell at a rate of ___ ions
Why does the Na^+ / K^+ ATPase pump have to pump the ions back to their repective locations?
They leak through the membrane and disrupt the electrical potential
The feedback mechanisms that amplify changes in the controlled variable are called ___
Positive feedback mechanisms
The feedback mechanisms that minimize changes in the controlled variable are called ___
Negative feedback mechanisms
The feedback mechanisms that try to anticipate changes in order to get an early jump on minimizing those changes in the controlled variable are called ___
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