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Ch 18- Blood
Terms in this set (26)
Identify at least two each of the transport, protective, and regulatory functions of the circulatory system
- Blood carries oxygen from the lungs to all of the body's tissues, while it picks up CO2 from those tissues and carries it to the lungs to be removed from the body.
- It picks up nutrients from the digestive tract and delivers all of them to the body's tissues
- Blood plays several roles in inflammation, a mechanism for limiting the spread of infection
- White blood cells destroy microorganisms and cancer cells and remove debris from the tissues
- By absorbing or giving off fluid under different conditions, the blood capillaries help to stabilize fluid distribution in the body
- By buffering acids and bases, blood proteins help to stabilize the pH of the extracellular fluids
What are two major principal components of the blood ?
Formed elements and plasma
List three major classes of plasma proteins. Which one is absent from blood serum ?
Albumin, Globulins, and Fibrinogen. Blood serum lacks Fibrinogen.
Define the viscosity and the osmolarity of blood. Explain why each of these is important for human survival.
Viscosity: Resistance of a fluid to flow due to the cohesion of its particles (thickness/stickiness of a fluid)
Osmolarity: Total molarity of the particles that cannot pass through the blood vessel wall
Viscosity governs blood flow; too much blood flow or too little could be damaging to the heart.
Osmolarity governs blood volume; too high or low volumes could cause BP to increase or decrease too much which is a threat to the arteries
What does hemopoiesis mean ?
the production of blood cells
Describe the size, shape, and contents of an erythrocyte, and explain how it acquires its unusual shape
Circular biconcave shaped cell (thick rim with sunken center). RBC's lose their nucleus during maturation. That also do not have a mitochondria. They get their unique shape so that they do not consume the oxygen they are delivering to the tissues.
What is the function of hemoglobin? What are its protein and nonprotein moieties called ?
Hemoglobin is a red pigment that give erythrocytes their color and name. It transports oxygen and aids in transportation of CO2 and the buffering of blood pH. Protein moiety is called blobs and the nonprotein moieties are called heme.
Define hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and RBC count and give the units of measurement in which each is expressed.
Hematocrit: percent of whole blood volume composed of erythrocytes (percentages)
Hemoglobin Concentration: amount of hemoglobin in the hematocrit (g/dL)
RBC Count: RBCs in hematocrit (RBC/uL)
List the stages in the production of an RBC count and describe how each stage differs from the previous one
Hemopoietic Stem Cell
Colony forming unit (CFU)- has receptors for erythropoieten. It stimulates the EFCU
[1 BIG CELL]
Precursor Cells- EFCU transform into erythroblasts. Those multiply, build up a large cell population, and synthesize hemoglobin. After that, the nucleus shrivels and is discharges from the cell. After the nucleus yeets itself, the erythroblastosis is now called a reticulocyte (named for the ribosome clusters transcribing the cells remaining mRNA). Then the reticulocytes leave the bone marrow and enter the blood
[BIG CELL SPLITS AND TRANSFORMS AND LOSES ITS NUCLEUS]
Mature Cell- after all the ribosomes are gone, the cell is considered mature
[NO NUCLEUS AND IS NOW A DONUT]
What is the role of erythropoietin in the regulation of RBC count? What is the role of gastroferritin?
Erythropoietin controls the production of RBCs (so the amount of them).
The role of gastroferritin is to transport the Fe2+ to the small intestine and release it for absorption.
What happens to each component of an RBC and its hemoglobin when it dies and disintegrates ?
Since RBCs do not have a nucleus, they cannot replicate, so they go to "die" in the spleen ("erythrocyte graveyard"). Old cells are trapped, broken up, and destroyed. The hemoglobin degrades by separating the heme from the globin. Heme turns into urine, bile, and feces or iron which is stored and reused or lost. The globin is hydrolyzed to free amino acids.
What are the three primary causes or categories of anemia? What are its three primary consequences ?
1. Inadequate erythropoiesis or hemoglobin synthesis
2. Hemorrhagic anemia from bleeding
3. Hemolytic anemia from RBC destruction
Hypoxia which oxygen deprivation. This can lead to necrosis of brain, heart, and kidney tissues.
Reduced blood osmolarity which causes more fluid flow to into intercellular spaces increase resulting in edema (swelling).
Blood viscosity is rescued which causes the heart rate to increase and BP to drop which can result in cardiac failure.
What are antibodies and antigens ? How do they interact to cause a transfusion reaction ?
Antigens are on the surface of all cells are are unique to each person, they help your body to distinguish your cells vs foreign matter. Antibodies are immune response proteins that get secreted when your body detects foreign cells (w/ out your antigens). Antibodies bind to antigens on the foreign cells and mark them for destruction.
What antibodies and antigens are present in people with each of the four ABO blood types ?
Type O- anti-A & anti-B antibodies, no antigen
Type A- anti-B, A
Type B- anti-A, B
Type AB- none, AB
Describe the causes, prevention, and treatment of HDN.
HDN is a woman with one blood type having a baby with a mismatched blood type. It can be prevented by taking an Rh immune globulin after the birth of the baby or during the pregnancy. and treatment includes photo therapy or an exchange transfusion.
Why might someone be interested in determining a persons blood type other than ABO/Rh ?
Paternity, criminal cases, research for anthropology and population genetics.
What is the overall function of Leukocytes ?
Give us protection against infection and other diseases.
List the 5 kinds of leukocytes in order of abundance. Identify whether each is a granulocyte or agranulocyte, and describe how to identify each one.
- Lymphocytes: lilac colored with a little cytoplasm showing
- Monocytes: largest, large nucleus, hoshstoe shaped nucleus a large amount of the time
- Neutrophils: most abundant, looks like it has multiple nuclei
- Eosinophils: usually two large lobed nucleus attached by a thin strand, more pink/red colored
- Basophils: large nucleus that is the same color as the cytoplasm so it takes up the whole cell
What does leukopoiesis have in common with erythropoiesis? How does it differ ?
They both begin with the same HSC but in leukopoiesis, some of them form into colony forming cells and some of them are destined to different outcomes.
What can cause abnormally high or low WBC count ?
Leukopenia= low WBC count
Leukocytosis= high WBC count
Suppose myeloblasts began multiplying out of control, but their subsequent development remained normal. What types of mature WBCs would be produced in excess ? What types would not ?
Granulocytes would be over produced. So neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
What are the three basic mechanisms of hemostasis ?
Vascular Spasms, Platelet Plug Formation, Coagulation
How do the extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms of coagulation differ? What do they have in common?
Extrinsic is when factors outside of blood (damaged vessel itself & perivascular tissues) aid coagulation, intrinsic is when factors in the blood itself form the clot. However, they both are a mechanism of coagulation and they work together to achieve hemostasis.
In what respect does blood clotting represent a negative feedback loop ? What part of it is a positive feedback loop?
The negative feedback loop would be coagulation in a broken blood vessel and positive feedback loop would be that of an undamaged blood vessel.
Describe some mechanisms that prevent clotting in undamaged vessels.
Platelet Repulsion, Dilution, Anticoagulants
Describe a common source and effect of pulmonary embolism.
Caused by thrombosis (unnecessary clotting) when the thrombus (blood clot) breaks into the bloodstream (then is called an embolus) and lodges into a small artery and blocks the blood flow to the heart.
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