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cell division

process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells

asexual reproduction

The production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent

sexual reproduction

When offspring are produced by the fusion of special reproductive cells formed by each of two parents.


packages of DNA.

Prokaryotic Chromosomes

lack a nucleus. DNA molecules found in the cytoplasm and contain a single chromosome.

Eukarytoic Chromosomes

More DNA and contain multiple chromosomes.


complex of chromosome and protein.


beadlike-structures formed by the DNA and histone molecules

cell cycle

when a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells.

binary fission

the division of a prokaryotic cell into two genetically identical offspring cells.


an "in-between" period of growth divided into three parts: G1, S, and G2.

G1 phase

Phase where cells increase in size and synthesize new proteins and organelles


G1 followed by this phase. New DNA is synthesized when the chromosomes are replicated.

G2 phase

phase where many organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced.

M Phase

the phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis


the division of the nucleus.


completes the process of cell division-it splits one cell into two.


genetic material inside nucleus condenses, the duplicated chromosomes become visible, and a spindle starts to form.


area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached


one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome


tiny-paired structures in which spindles are attached


centromeres of duplicated chromosomes line up across cetner of cell, spindle fibers connect to the centromere of each chromosome to the two poles of the spindle.


when the chromosomes separate and move along spindle fibers to opposite ends of the cell.


chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin and nuclear envelope re-forms.


protein that regulates the cell cycle.

growth factors

stimulate the growth and division of cells.


development stage from which the adult organism is gradually produced.


process by which cells become specialized.


Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into any type of cell


a hollow ball of cells with a cluster of cells inside.


cells that can develop into most, but not all, of the body's cell types.

stem cells

the unspecialized cells from which differentiated cells devlop.


cells that can develop into many types of differentiated cells.

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