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Biology chapter 10 (Miller & Levine)
process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
The production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent
When offspring are produced by the fusion of special reproductive cells formed by each of two parents.
packages of DNA.
lack a nucleus. DNA molecules found in the cytoplasm and contain a single chromosome.
More DNA and contain multiple chromosomes.
complex of chromosome and protein.
beadlike-structures formed by the DNA and histone molecules
when a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells.
the division of a prokaryotic cell into two genetically identical offspring cells.
an "in-between" period of growth divided into three parts: G1, S, and G2.
Phase where cells increase in size and synthesize new proteins and organelles
G1 followed by this phase. New DNA is synthesized when the chromosomes are replicated.
phase where many organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced.
the phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis
the division of the nucleus.
completes the process of cell division-it splits one cell into two.
genetic material inside nucleus condenses, the duplicated chromosomes become visible, and a spindle starts to form.
area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
tiny-paired structures in which spindles are attached
centromeres of duplicated chromosomes line up across cetner of cell, spindle fibers connect to the centromere of each chromosome to the two poles of the spindle.
when the chromosomes separate and move along spindle fibers to opposite ends of the cell.
chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin and nuclear envelope re-forms.
protein that regulates the cell cycle.
stimulate the growth and division of cells.
development stage from which the adult organism is gradually produced.
process by which cells become specialized.
Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into any type of cell
a hollow ball of cells with a cluster of cells inside.
cells that can develop into most, but not all, of the body's cell types.
the unspecialized cells from which differentiated cells devlop.
cells that can develop into many types of differentiated cells.