How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

33 terms

Biology chapter 10 (Miller & Levine)

STUDY
PLAY
cell division
process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
asexual reproduction
The production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent
sexual reproduction
When offspring are produced by the fusion of special reproductive cells formed by each of two parents.
chromosomes
packages of DNA.
Prokaryotic Chromosomes
lack a nucleus. DNA molecules found in the cytoplasm and contain a single chromosome.
Eukarytoic Chromosomes
More DNA and contain multiple chromosomes.
Chromatin
complex of chromosome and protein.
nucleosomes
beadlike-structures formed by the DNA and histone molecules
cell cycle
when a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells.
binary fission
the division of a prokaryotic cell into two genetically identical offspring cells.
interphase
an "in-between" period of growth divided into three parts: G1, S, and G2.
G1 phase
Phase where cells increase in size and synthesize new proteins and organelles
synthesis
G1 followed by this phase. New DNA is synthesized when the chromosomes are replicated.
G2 phase
phase where many organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced.
M Phase
the phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis
mitosis
the division of the nucleus.
cytokinesis
completes the process of cell division-it splits one cell into two.
prophase
genetic material inside nucleus condenses, the duplicated chromosomes become visible, and a spindle starts to form.
centromere
area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
chromatid
one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
centrioles
tiny-paired structures in which spindles are attached
Metaphase
centromeres of duplicated chromosomes line up across cetner of cell, spindle fibers connect to the centromere of each chromosome to the two poles of the spindle.
anaphase
when the chromosomes separate and move along spindle fibers to opposite ends of the cell.
telophase
chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin and nuclear envelope re-forms.
cyclin
protein that regulates the cell cycle.
growth factors
stimulate the growth and division of cells.
embryo
development stage from which the adult organism is gradually produced.
differentiation
process by which cells become specialized.
totipotent
Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into any type of cell
blastocyst
a hollow ball of cells with a cluster of cells inside.
pluripotent
cells that can develop into most, but not all, of the body's cell types.
stem cells
the unspecialized cells from which differentiated cells devlop.
multipotent
cells that can develop into many types of differentiated cells.