iGCSE Chemistry: Alkanes & Crude Oil
Terms in this set (28)
What do each of the following state symbols represent: (s), (l), (g), (aq)
(s) - solid. (l) - liquid. (g) - gas. (aq) - aqueous (in solution)
Explain why carbon dioxide gas, CO₂, is a gas at room temperature
Carbon dioxide has a simple molecular structure with weak intermolecular forces that require little energy to overcome
Do larger molecules have higher or lower boiling points than smaller molecules?
Name the greenhouse gas released from burning hydrocabons
Explain the term hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon is a molecule containing only hydrogen and carbon
Explain the term homologous series
A homologous series is a family of compounds with 1) the same general formula 2) similar chemical properties 3) trends in their physical properties
Explain the term isomerism
Molecules with the same molecular formula but with a different structure
Draw the displayed formula for 2,3-dimethyl hexane
Write all the possible different structural and displayed formulae of C₄H₁₀
What is crude oil?
A mixture of hydrocarbons
Explain how crude oil is separated into fractions
Crude oil is separated by fractional distillation. Crude oil is heated and the oil evaporates. It then goes into the tower. As the vapours rise up the tower the temperature falls. Different sized fractions condense at different heights because they have different boiling points. Smaller molecules condense high up in the tower. Larger molecules condense low down in the tower. Then the fractions are collected.
What is the name of the process in which crude oil is separated into its various components?
Recall a use for each of the 6 fractions obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil
refinery gases=cooking; gasoline=fuel for cars; kerosene=fuel for planes; diesel=fuel for lorries; fuel oil=fuel for ships; bitumen=surfacing roads
Recall the names of the main fractions obtained from crude oil, in order of lowest boiling point first
Refinery gases, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, fuel oil and bitumen
What does volatile mean? Which fraction of crude oil is the most volatile?
If a substance is volatile it evaporates easily. Refinery gas is the most volatile fraction of crude oil.
What is meant by the term viscosity?
The viscosity of a fluid describes how easily it flows. Water has a low viscosity, it flows very easily. Crude oil has a higher viscosity than water, it does not flow very easily.
What is a fuel?
A fuel is a substance that, when burned, releases heat energy
Recall the products of the complete combustion of alkanes
Carbon dioxide and water
Recall all the possible products of the incomplete combustion of alkanes
Carbon, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and water
Explain why carbon monoxide is dangerous to humans
It is poisonous because it reduces the capacity of the blood to carry oxygen
In car engines, sparks cause the formation of some gases which contribute to acid rain. What are these gases?
Oxides of nitrogen
How does sulfur dioxide form in car engines?
Petrol includes the impurity sulfur, and when the petrol combusts some sulfur dioxide is formed
Describe how nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide contribute to acid rain
Nitrogen oxides created in hot car engines and sulfur dioxide released when fossil fuels are burned combine with water in the atmosphere to form acidic solutions
Write the chemical equation for sulfur dioxide dissolving in water to form acid rain
SO₂ + H₂O → H₂SO₃
State the general formula of alkanes
State the names and molecular formulae of the first 5 alkanes
methane (CH₄), ethane (C₂H₆), propane (C₃H₈), butane (C₄H₁₀), pentane (C₅H₁₂)
Explain the term saturated
A molecule containing only single bonds
Draw the displayed formula for propane
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
iGCSE Chemistry: Ionic Bonding
iGCSE Chemistry: Specification Experiments
iGCSE Chemistry: Key Calculations (Triple)
iGCSE Chemistry: Equilibria (Triple)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
iGCSE Chemistry: Fundamentals
iGCSE Chemistry: Separating Techniques
iGCSE Chemistry: Key Reactions
iGCSE Chemistry: Simple Molecules & Covalent Bonding