iGCSE Chemistry: Metal Reactivity & Halogens
Terms in this set (51)
How are elements arranged in the periodic table?
in order by atomic number
On the Periodic table what is the meaning of the word Group?
A Group is a vertical column of similar elements
On the Periodic Table what is the meaning of the word Period?
A Period is a horizontal row of elements
How many electrons can the first, second and third shells hold?
First 2, second 8, third 8
Are metal oxides acidic or basic?
If an element conducts electricity, is it typically a metal or a non-metal?
Which are described as acidic: metal oxides or non-metal oxides?
Where are metals found on the periodic table?
On the left, reaching across the middle
Where are non-metals found on the periodic table?
At the top right, plus hydrogen
Where are the transition metals on the Periodic Table?
In the middle
On the Periodic table what is the meaning of the word Group? What does that tell us about the electron configuration of the atom?
same number of electrons in the outer shell
On the Periodic Table what is the meaning of the word Period? What does that tell us about the electron configuration of the atom?
same number of electron shells
Why do elements in the same group of the periodic table have similar chemical properties?
Elements in the same group of the periodic table have the same number of electrons in their outer shell
What are the elements in group 0 called?
State 4 observations when lithium reacts with water
1) fizzing occurs 2) lithium moves around 3) lithium disappears 4) lithium floats
State 5 observations when sodium reacts with water
1) fizzing occurs 2) sodium moves around 3) sodium melts 4) sodium disappears 5) sodium floats
State 6 observations when potassium reacts with water
1) fizzing occurs 2) potassium moves around 3) potassium melts 4) lilac flame is seen 5) potassium disappears 6) potassium floats
What are the elements in group 1 called?
Write the chemical equation for the reaction betweem sodium and water
2Na + 2H₂O → 2NaOH + H₂
If pieces of lithium, potassium and sodium were added to water, how could observations of the differences reactions indicate the relative reactivity of those 3 metals?
Lithium would bubble the least vigorously, showing it is least reactive. Potassium would give off a lilac flame, showing it is most reactive.
If pieces of lithium, potassium and sodium were cut and exposed to air, how could observations of the differences reactions indicate the relative reactivity of those 3 metals?
Potassium would oxidise the most quickly, showing it is most reactive. Lithium would oxidise the slowest, showing it is least reactive.
Describe the relative reactivities of the elements in Group 1
The reactivity increases as you go down the group, e.g. Li<Na<K<Rb
(Triple only) Explain, by referring to the electronic configurations, why lithium is less reactive than sodium.
Sodium has the electronic configuration 2,8,1 and lithium has 2,1. The outer electron lost from sodium is further from the nucleus therefore the electron is less attracted by the nucleus. So sodium is more reactive than lithium
What are the elements in group 7 called?
What colour and state is bromine at room temperature?
What colour and state is iodine at room temperature?
dark grey solid
What is the colour and physical state of chlorine at room temperature?
Predict what colour and state is astatine at room temperature
Predict what colour and state is fluorine at room temperature
Suggest how the reactivity of fluorine compares to chlorine
Fluorine is more reactive than chlorine as it is higher in the group.
Describe how reactivity changes as you descend group 7
Hydrogen bromide is reacted with chlorine to form bromine. Write a chemical equation.
2HBr + Cl₂ → 2HCl + Br₂
In halogen displacement reactions, electrons are transferred from one atom to another. What type of reaction is this?
(Triple only) Explain, by referring to the electronic configurations, why fluorine is more reactive than chlorine
Fluorine has the electronic configuration 2,7 and chlorine has 2,8,7. An extra outer electron is gained more easily by fluorine. This is because the outer shell is closer to the nucleus, so an extra electron is attracted more strongly. So fluorine is more reactive than chlorine
Describe how the reaction of hydrochloric acid and various metals could be used to determine the relative reactivity of those metals
Add the various metals to different test tubes containing the same volume and concentration of acid. The metals which bubble more are more reactive.
An experiment investigates which of metals X and Z is more reactive. The result is X + ZSO₄ → X + ZSO₄. Which metal is more reactive?
Order these metals from the most reactive to the least: aluminium, calcium, copper, gold, iron, lithium, magnesium, potassium, silver, sodium, zinc
potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, zinc, iron, copper, silver, gold
Describe the conditions under which iron rusts
oxygen and water
Write the word equation for the formation of rust
iron + oxygen + water → hydrated iron (III) oxide
Explain how galvanising prevents rusting
Zinc is more reactive than iron. Zinc reacts with oxygen instead of iron
State the methods of how the rusting of iron may be prevented
grease, oil, paint, plastic and galvanising
State the meaning of the term oxidising agent
A substance that gives oxygen or removes electrons (it is itself reduced)
State the meaning of the term redox
A reaction involving both reduction and oxidation
State the meaning of the term reducing agent
A substance that takes oxygen or gives electrons (it is itself oxidised)
Write the word equation to represent the reaction between sulfuric acid and magnesium
sulfuric acid + magnesium → magnesium sulfate + hydrogen
A gas is bubbled through limewater and the limewater goes cloudy. Identify the gas.
Describe the test for ammonia gas
Turns damp red litmus paper blue
Describe the test for carbon dioxide gas
Bubble the gas through limewater and see if it goes cloudy
Describe the test for chlorine gas
Turns moist litmus paper white (bleaches)
Describe the test for hydrogen gas
Use a lit splint to see if the gas pops
Describe the test for oxygen gas
Use a glowing splint and see if it relights
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
iGCSE Chemistry: Ionic Bonding
iGCSE Chemistry: Specification Experiments
iGCSE Chemistry: Key Calculations (Triple)
iGCSE Chemistry: Equilibria (Triple)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
iGCSE Chemistry: Fundamentals
iGCSE Chemistry: Separating Techniques
iGCSE Chemistry: Key Reactions
iGCSE Chemistry: Simple Molecules & Covalent Bonding