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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
The Civil War: Beginning--1861
Terms in this set (63)
2. Congregational Christians
3. Mixed economy
4. higher education (5-6)
5. higher population (immigrants)
English Civil War--Puritan Rev. 1640s--Parliament v. King.
leader: Oliver Cromwell
North: Congregational Christians
faithful are sovereign
North: mixed economy
60% industrial, 40% agrarian
slavery legal, but not financially viable
Irish and German
strong national government
2. Episcopal Christians
3. agrarian economy
4. lower education (2/3 of pop=1-2. couldn't read/write)
5. thin, conservative population
English Civil War--Puritain Rev 1640s--Parliament v. King
South: Episcopal Christians
head: Anglican Church
1. Kin 2. Arch-bishop of Canterbury
dogma determined by the King
worshipers follow superiors.
South: agrarian economy
20% industrial, 80% agrarian
1794--Cotton gin invented by Eli Whittney. Cotton becomes cash crop.
Slavery=economic, financially beneficial
vital federation of sovereign states.
3 times the Civil War could have started
1. Missouri Compromise (1820)
2. Nullification crisis
3. Compromise of 1850
Missouri enters as a slave state
Maine enters as a free state
South Carolina will not enforce tariff
Henry Clay compromise--Tariff of 1833
Compromise of 1850
Henry Clay compromise... (11 free v. 11 slave)
California enters as free state (free>slave since then)
territories (Utah, New Mexico) slave
stronger fugitive slave laws
...Daniel Webster quits the senate to support the Comp of 1850
Does Congress have authority to limit slavery in territories?
1. 1787--ban slavery in Northwest Ordinance
2. 1820--Missouri Compromise 36' 30' north=free, south=slave
1. 36' 30' (Moderates)
2. popular sovereignty (Moderates)
3. Wilmot Proviso (Abolitionists)--Lincoln support
4. Doctrine of the South (Fire-eaters)
Slavery solutions: Wilmot Proviso
Abolitionists favor. David Wilmot (PA Congress) amendment.
Ban slavery in any acquired land from Mexican Cession.
Slavery solutions: Doctrine of the South
John C Calhoun (senator of South Carolina)
slavery must be permitted in the territories.
"due process of law"
constitutionally protected.... legal
Personal Liberty Laws
slave in border (90 days) of free state/territory, achieve manumission (emancipation)
lose slave status in free state/territory
*state passed law
Dred Scott Decision (1857)
black slave, Dred Scott in Nebraska territory.
free! manumission! Personal Liberty Law!
Supreme court--Dred Scott=slave.... PLL=violate 5th amendment.
*worst decision of Supreme Court. no compromise.
*Doctrine of the South! intensifies abolitionists!
terrorist abolitionist. kill to end slavery.
plan... Harper's Ferry, VA
Dec 1859, captured and executed.
becomes abolitionist martyr, compared to Christ
John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry (1859)
John Brown... give weapons to slaves
slaves rise up and revolt
Election of 1860
1. Abe Lincoln--repub. Wilmot Proviso.
2. S Douglas--moderate. popular sovereignty
3. John Breckinridge--south. DSD, Doctrine of the South (KT)
4. John Bell--moderate. ignore DSD. unite! rule of law! democracy!
Lincoln wins... NO south. 39% popular vote. (lowest)
N dominate H of R... South >:(
1st secession.... South Carolina
1st wave of secession (Feb 1861)
1. South Carolina
Confederate State of America
Provisional election... 6 months--popular election
order evacuation of federal installments in 7 south states
constitution (80-90$ same) except:
1. state sovereignty
2. president 1 year term (not re-elected, veto portions)
3. ban international slave trade
4. slavery determined by state.
President of the Confederacy
graduate of West Pt
sec of war
Vice-president of the Confederacy
white supremacy--"cornerstone speech"
Evacuate federal installments?
all out.... "Lame Duck" Buchanan give no orders...
1. Pensacola, Florida
2. Charleston, South Carolins
"Lame Duck" Buchanon's take
unconstitutional for state to secede
he has no power to stop, no authority
no direction to federal officers
Last senate from the South. TN congressman.
*all Southern congressmen vacate
political solution for secession?
John Crittenden (KT).
1. 36' 30' line
2. denounce Dred Scott Decision
3. amend constitution: slavery only abolished from state action, not federal. no future amendment to it.
Mar 4, 1861
1. civil war? S=aggressor.
2. occupy/hold federal property
3. oath to preserve, protect
Ft Moultrie. Fort of Major Anderson and detachment (120).
South reinforce beside it.
Christmas 1860... Anderson relocate to Ft Sumter
*need supplies!! reinforcements!!
Star of the West
Jan 1861. Buchanan send to Ft. Sumter.
SC fire across the bow...
Ship turns around.
South Carolina's Ultimatum
Lincoln sends ship of supplies and food (no troops) to Major Anderson.
... vacate by April 12, 1861!
"inventor of baseball"
Anderson's artillery officer
S comm at Ft. Sumter.
(Anderson's student at West Pt)
LA superintendent at West Pt
Ft. Sumter parle
1. no men taken prisoner, keep weapons/colors
2. surrender facility
3. 21 gun salute. cannon explode.
Anderson to NY... rally in Times Sq.
Lincoln calls for volunteers
Asks states to send militia to put down the southern rebellion.
causes 2nd wave of secession....
gets 200,000 volunteers. 90 day enlistments.
civilians, no discipline... "ON TO RICHMOND!"
War of the Southern Rebellion
legal term of Civil War
2nd wave of secession
1. Virginia** (most populous, richest, industrialized, old dominion, 1st st)
2. North Carolina
3. Tennessee* (2ns most populous, rich, industrialized, RR transport)
(complete trans-miss: Ark, TX, LA)
Capital of Confederacy moves
no combat experience, staff officer
command largest army ever put on the field--35,000
North name after a body of water
South name after town/village
July 21, 1861
Manassass Junction (S)-----Bull Run (N)
Manassas Junction (S)----Bull Run (N)
7/21/1861. S=20,000--comm: PGT Beauregard (morning)
1st major battle of Civil War.
S retreat!...Bernard Bee "There's Jackson like a stone wall! Rally behind the Virginians!"
RR of reinforcements--comm: J. E. Johnston (afternoon)
strategic and tactical victory for S!
USA (US Army)
"The Battle Hymn of the Republic"--Julia Ward Howe
the Enemy (NO CONFEDERACY)
CSA (Confederate State Army)
grey uniform/"butternut brown"
"the Bonnie Blue Flag" (SC flag)
2+ year war??
North will win (transport, industry population)
N=22 mil S=9.8 mil (1st nationwide draft 1862)
N=integrated RR. standard gauge S=not. state choice.
N=mixed S=agrarian (Birmingham,Nashville, Richmond, Atlanta)
N=established $$$ S=no $$$
N=wheat, potato, corn S=tobacco, cotton (cash crops)
Winfield Scott (Gen in Chief)
1. naval blockade (2,000 mi coastline, hit ports) "Anaconda"
2. divide and conquer (E/W, N/S)
3. capture Richmond, VA (symbolic capital)
N macrostrategy: divide and conquer
1. east to west--control Miss river.
-isolate ARK, LA, TX
-no smuggled goods from Mex to TX
-restore Iowa, Ill, Ind, Mich (land locked)
2. north to south
*divide into quads
1. military (defense, interior lines)
2. political (enemy bled, lose will to fight, copperheads??)
3. economic (use cotton to get foreign aid!)
Doves of the Deomcratic party.
searching for negotiated settlement.
S macrostrategy: economy
"King Cotton"--Europe textiles 80%.
E and F support confed??
S want: "de facto" diplomatic recognition (sovereign entity/state) and military aid
give N: international pressure and blockade under international law
N want: no dip recog for S, no foreign aid
W H Seward
Lincoln's Sec of St.
wants to end negotiation. hawk.
don't mess. keep out foreign policy!
appoint C F Adams.
C F Adams
the US ambassador to England
1st Am "Minister to the Court of St James"
left wing repub, diplomatic
husband: Prince Albert (German, liberal, moderate, neg)
Prime minister of E.
Englishsec of st
Trent=E merchant vessel. sail to New Orleans.
2 confed dip: James Mason (F), John Slidell (E)
USS San Jacinto--Cpt. Charles Wilkes.
catch Trent in intnt'l waters. arrest Slidell and Mason, imprison.
Victoria/Palmerston >:(.... 5,000 to Canada and Lord Russel statement:
2. formal apology
3. court marshall of Cpt Wilkes (national hero, gold medal)
Lincoln release Mason and Slidell.
"one war at a time"
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