peasant farms, run by groups of 4-80 families who worked the land together
Russian Orthodox Church
Russian form of Christianity imported from Byzantine Empire and combined with local religion
Tsar Alexander II
He was a Russian Tsar who attempted reform but his appeasement (emancipation of serfs and the establishment of Zemstvos) led to his assassination by the People's Will
Tsar Alexander III
Tsar of Russia from 1881 1894 who strongly resisted the liberal movement emerging in Russia at the time. Undid many of his father's liberal reforms, but allowed institutions like zemstvos to continue. Extremely reactionary.
emancipation of serfs
Tsar Alexander II ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861; serfs obtained no political rights; required to stay in villages until they could repay aristocracy for land.
elected local rural governments allow some democracy without weakening the central government
the process of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the Russian empire
liberals vs. socialists
people for democratic republic vs. those for a socialist state
populists. Largest radical group. Believed the peasants would one day overthrow the tsar and only revolution could bring reform
focused on workers, wanted to eventually overthrow tsar and create socialist state
Mensheviks vs. Bolsheviks
split in SDs, M. = Russia not ready for revolution B = immediate revolution is best
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
Humiliating defeat for Russia, started over land disputes (trans-siberian railroad) 1904-5
The former home of the Tsar and the place where the Bolsheviks seized control, center of St. Petersburg
Jan. 1905 - a march of workers carrying a reformative petition to the tsar's Winter Palace. troops blocked their way and 300+ marchers died and 1000+ maybe wounded. Shattered the myth that the tsar was the Holy Father.
Council of workers and soldiers set up by Russian revolutionaries in 1917
Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army; played heroic part in Civil War; later political opponent of Stalin
Issued in Russia because of fear of a general strike. Granted full civil rights and a popular parliament- Duma
conservative political party, funded by the tsar, promoted the continuation of old political ways
para-military groups; conservative; given weapons by the tsar
The elected parliament. Though through establishing this is seemed like the Czar was giving his people power, in reality he could easily get rid of this if they made any laws or such that he didn't like.
an educated and intellectual elite
Prime minister of Russia from 1906-1911. He was very involved in fighting radical groups and he also took upon himself various agrarian reforms - which he thought and were proven to be essential for the Russian economy.
An agrarian socialist who became prime minister. He refused to confiscate land holdings and felt that continuation of war was most important.
of 1917 was the first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917. It occurred March 8-12 (February 23-27 Old Style) and its immediate result was the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, the collapse of Imperial Russia and the end of the Romanov dynasty.
The government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The only mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.
The St. Petersburg, or Petrograd, council of workers, soldiers, and intellectuals who shared power with the provisional government.
Radical document calls (1) for Russia to withdraw from the war, (2) for the soviets to seize power on behalf of workers and poor peasants, and (3) for all private land to be nationalized.
It was created by elections. It met for only one day on January 18, 1918. It was then permanently disbanded by Bolshevik soldiers acting under Lenin's orders. Thus even before the peace with Germany, Lenin was forming a one party government. (914)
giving all adult men the right to vote
peace, land, and bread
What slogan was used by Lenin to arouse people to support his party?
The Bolshevik armed forces.
He was a Russian general who tried to overthrow the Provisional Government because he wanted to establish a military dictatorship.
Congress of the Soviets
took power when Provisional Government fell
Bolsheviks vs. Mensheviks/general oppostion
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
the campaign of mass arrests and executions conducted by the Bolshevik government
Russians who opposed Lenin and the Bolsheviks.
A system introduced under Bolshevik rule after 1917 which involved land being seized and redistributed, factories given to the workers, banks being nationalized, and church property being granted to the state. This was enforced by the Cheka.
secret police, formed by Lenin
New Economic policy in Soviet Russia to prevent Russia's economy from collapsing; allowed capitalist ventures
a seven-member committee that became the leading policy-making body of the Communist Party in Russia
Union of Soviet Socialist Republic
USSR; Russia's new name after the November Revolution
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
citadel of Moscow, housing the offices of the Russian government
A revolution that didn't end (a revolution that spread throughout the world)
system in which private farms were eliminated, instead, the government owned all the land while the peasants worked on it.
Prosperous Russian Peasents that - under Stalin - were sent to Labor Camps as punishment for being succesful
the State Planning Commission which oversaw Stalin's series of five year plans
Five Year Plans
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state.
"labor heroes" who increased output and broke existing records creating an industrial atmosphere of competitive pressure in a socialist economy.
because it was believed that enemies of the regime assassinated him, the purges began
was a series of campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin
Stalin's secret police
purges of communist officials, intelligentsia, church members, army officers, kulaks, and counter revolutionaries, eliminating opposition
series of trails of poltical oppositions of Joseph Stalin. It had determined the guilt of defendent. The defendants not able to justify themselves have to sign statements under torture. Way to eliminate political oppositions. Stalin was paranoid and feared opposition. served as warning to people
The Communist youth organization
cult of personality
Promotion of the image of an authoritarian leader not merely as a political figure but as someone who embodies the spirit of the nation and possesses endowments of wisdom and strength far beyond those of the average individual.
loyal communists; rewarded with better housing, better wages, etc.
Forced labor camps set up by Stalin in Siberia. Dissidents were sent to the camps, where conditions were generally brutal. Millions died in these camps.