Upgrade to remove ads
World History Sem 1 Vocab
Terms in this set (133)
Finely ground, fertile soil good for growing crops.
Longest River in the world. It begins in the heart of Africa and flows north into the Mediterranean Sea.
The earliest form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a reed stylus to create wedge-shaped impressions on a clay tablet.
An administrative organization that relies on non-elective officials and regular procedures.
A large political unit or state, usually under a single leader, that controls many peoples or territories.
A large arc of fertile farmland that stretched the Persian Gulf up to Mesopotamia, and back down to the Red Sea. The birthplace of civilizations such as Sumer, and Egypt.
"The land between two rivers." The fertile land between the Tigris & Euphrates rivers, located in present-day Iraq, home to the earliest known civilization, Sumer.
"Sacred writings," a complex system of writing that used both pictures and more abstract forms, used by the ancient Egyptians and Mayans.
Indo-Europeans who lived in present-day southwestern Iran, and who took control of an area from Asia Minor to India from 539 BC to the 330s BC when they were conquered by Alexander the Great.
Believing in one god. Judaism is the earliest known monotheistic religion.
The belief in many gods.
The earliest known civilization. Established a number of independent city in Mesopotamia such as Ur, Uruk in 3000 BC. These cities expanded into city-states which remained the dominant power in the region until around 2340 BC.
A government granted by "divine" authority.
A massive stepped tower on which was built a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a Sumerian City.
The major Indian religious system which had its origins in the beliefs of the Aryans of India c. 1500 BC
In the Hindu religion it is the rebirth of a soul into a new body after the old body has died. The cycle of death and rebirth of is called samsara.
In Hinduism, the force generated by a person's actions that determines how that person will be reincarnated (reborn) in the next life.
In Hinduism, the divine law that rules karma. Requires all people to do their duty based on their status in society.
The four levels of the Indian caste system according to early Vedic texts
Religion introduced in northern India c. 500s BC by Siddhartha Gautama, Known as the Buddha, or "Enlightened One."
A system of political and ethical ideas created by Chinese philosopher Kung Fu Zi (Confucius) in Zhou dynasty (500 BC). Intended to help restore order to society that was in a state of confusion.
System of ideas based on the teachings of Laozi. Teaches that the will of Heaven is best followed through inaction so that nature is allowed to take its course.
A family of rulers from the same family line.
MANDATE OF HEAVEN
The idea that there could be only one legitimate ruler of China at a time, and that this ruler had the blessing of the gods.
Created by the Zhou dynasty
QIN SHI HUANGDI
259 BC - 210 BC
Qin Shi Huang was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China. He was born Ying Zheng
Sacred laws or rules handed down to Moses by God on Mount Sinai.
Old Testament patriarch regarded by Jews as the founder of the Hebrew people through his son Isaac and by Muslims as the founder of the Arab peoples through his son Ishmael.
The Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt and delivered the Law (10 commandments) during their years of wandering in the wilderness.
Literally, "the scattering of seeds.
The dispersion of Jews among the Gentiles (non Jews) after the Babylonian Exile in 586 BC.
A city in and the capital of Israel
An ancient holy city and a center of pilgrimage for Jews, Christians, and Muslims
Sacred text of Judaism (first 5 books of the Bible) handed down from Moses.
The promised deliverer of the Jewish nation, prophesied in the old testament.
The Jewish house of worship.
The most ancient (c.1500 - 1000 BC) Hindu scriptures, written in early Sanskrit and containing hymns, philosophy, and guidance on ritual for the priests of Vedic religion. Believed to have been directly revealed to seers among the early Aryans in India, and preserved by oral tradition.
A Sanskrit epic and an important source of information on the development of Hinduism between 400 BC and AD 200 and is regarded by Hindus as both a text about dharma (Hindu moral law) and a history.
Ancient Indian text that became an important work of Hindu tradition in terms of both literature and philosophy.
Release from the cycle of rebirth impelled by the law of karma.
The transcendent state attained as a result of being released from the cycle of rebirth.
4 NOBLE TRUTHS
The basic teachings of the Buddha (Siddhartha).
Suffering arises from attachment to desires.
Suffering ceases when attachment to desire ceases.
Freedom from suffering is possible by practicing the Eightfold Path.
8-FOLD PATH TO ENLIGHTENMENT
The basic path, laid out by the Buddha, to help rid oneself of suffering
A man who Christians believe was the son of God, and whose teachings are the basis of Christianity.
Christ's rising from the dead. This event is the basis for the Christian belief that Jesus was the Messiah and divine.
EDICT OF MILAN
Letter signed by the Roman emperors Constantine and Licinius that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. A major step in the spread of Christianity throughout the Roman Empire and later all of Western Civilization
Roman Emperor (AD 306-337) credited with transitioning the official religion of the Roman Empire from their polytheistic beliefs to Christianity.
Capital city of Byzantine (East Roman) Empire.
Under Emperor Constantine the Great, the capital of the Roman empire was moved from Rome to Byzantium (Later renamed Constantinople after the Emperor) and was labeled "Nova Roma," or New Rome.
5 PILLARS OF ISLAM
Basic acts in Islam, considered mandatory by believers and are the foundation of Muslim life.
Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca.
Founder of Islam. (AD 570-632)
The Arab prophet who, according to Islam, was the last messenger of Allah (God) (570-632)
City in western Saudi Arabia, an oasis, considered by Muslims to be the holiest city of Islam. Birth Place of Muhammad.
The burial place of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and is the second-holiest city in Islam after Mecca. ... It served as the power base of Islam in its first century where the early Muslim community developed.
Period of human culture between the Stone Age and the Iron Age, characterized by the use of weapons and implements made of cast bronze. The beginning of the Bronze Age is generally dated before 3000 bce in parts of Mediterranean Europe, the Middle East, and China
Bronze Age civilization established on the island of Crete from 2700BC to 1550 BC. The first civilization to appear on European soil.
Named after Mycenae, and considered to be the first Greek State. 1600-1100 BC
A long poem that tells the deeds of a great hero.
Greek word for their city-states, and the central focus of Greek life.
Fortified area, usually on top of a hill or rock outcropping that served as a place of refuge during an attack, and sometimes as a religious and political meeting place. Below an acropolis was an agora or an open space there the people could assemble and that served as a market
A member of the serf (higher than slave, lower than citizen) class in ancient Sparta
Heavily armored foot soldier of ancient Greece. Carried a round shield, short sword and a thrusting spear about 9 feet long.
Shield wall created by hoplite soldiers interlocking their shields, with spears pointed outward.
Rulers who seized power by force from the Greek aristocrats and were supported by the newly rich
A small group of people who retain control of political institution.
A form of government in which the people rule themselves. The earliest forms of democracy come from Greek city-states such as Athens.
AGE OF PERICLES
a period of in which Athens enjoyed being the political and cultural center of Greece.
a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years.
The legendary home of the Greek and Roman gods.
an actual mountain in Greece, the highest in the country.
All the Gods of a religion or people and specifically of the Ancient Greeks.
ALEXANDER THE GREAT
356 - 323 BC
Trained by Aristotle at the age of 13
Inherited power from his father Phillip II of Macedonia at age 20.
Conquered Asia minor, Syria, Egypt and Persia by 25
Never suffered a single defeat.
Created an empire that stretched around 2 million square miles.
Hedonism (negative hedonism)
Ancient school of philosophy founded in Athens c. 307 BC by Epicurus
Advocated the greatest good was to seek modest pleasure in order to attain tranquility, freedom from fear, and absence of bodily pain.
The period in Greek history (323 - 31 BC) that started with Alexander's death and ends with the conquest of the last Hellenistic kingdom by Rome
C.484 -425 BC
Known as the "Father of History"
Treaty history as a method of investigation rather than storytelling like Homer
Author of "The Histories," 440 BC, an account of the rise of Persia, and the Greco-Persian Wars.
Known best for the proof of the Pythagorean theorem (a2+b2=c2) which deals with right triangles.
classical Greek philosopher who is credited with laying the fundamentals of modern Western philosophy. He is known for creating the Socratic method
considered the pre-eminent Greek philosopher, known for his Dialogues and for founding his Academy north of Athens, traditionally considered the first university in the western world.
Greek philosopher whose observations of the world around him created the basis for modern day science.
teacher of Alexander the Great
The Latins were originally an Italic tribe in ancient central Italy which included the early inhabitants of the city of Rome.
a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives.
The Roman republic was run by the Senate which passed all laws and collected all taxes. All members of the Senate were of the Patrician or wealthy landowner class and were selected by the Roman Consuls and remained a senator for life
A member of long-established wealthy family in ancient Rome. These families provided the Rome's political, religious, and military leadership.
The general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians. The common, lower social class.
highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, and one of the two annually elected chief magistrates who jointly ruled the republic.
The title granted by the government of ancient Rome to men acting in two official capacities: Military and Civil.
A long period ( 200 years) of relative peace and stability experienced by the Roman Empire between Caesar Augustus and Marcus Aurelius (last of the "good emperors")
Latin for Emperor.
A group of three men holding power, in particular the unofficial coalition of Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus in 60 BC
Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and
the rise of the Roman
From the Latin word "island."
A kind of apartment building that housed most of the urban citizen population of Ancient Rome.
The male head of a family or household
Gladiator who escaped and became an accomplished military leader in the Third Servile War, a slave revolt
An Ancient Greek colony on the west shores of the Bosporus Straight and the capitol of the Eastern Roman Empire, later named Constantinople, and presently Istanbul.
Also known as the Eastern Roman empire
Divided the empire into halves in AD 285 with the Eastern Empire governed out of Byzantium and the Western Empire governed from Rome.
Tribes of northern Europe such as the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, and the Vandals who began to take over Roman-held territory in Europe and who ultimately we able to sack Rome, signaling the fall of the Western Roman Empire in AD 476.
Considered the last Western Roman Emperor, he was deposed by the Germanic head of the Army in 476 leading to a series of German Kingdoms in what was once Western Roman territory.
MANDATE OF HEAVEN
Created by the Zhou
The idea that there could be only one legitimate ruler of China at a time, and that this ruler had the blessing of the gods
a monarch, and usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
In Confucian philosophy, a virtue of respect for one's parents, elders, and ancestors
13th-century warrior in central Asia who founded the Mongol Empire, the largest empire in history
one of the first and most famous Europeans to travel to Asia during the Middle Ages. (1271 - 1295 CE)
a title that was granted by the Emperor to the country's top military commander who gradually became more powerful than the court officials, and eventually they took control of the whole government.
Subordinate only to the shogun, the most powerful feudal rulers from the 10th century to the middle 19th century in Japan.
the warriors of premodern Japan who later made up the ruling military class that eventually became the highest ranking social caste of the Edo Period (1603-1867)
The unwritten Samurai code of conduct
held that the true warrior must hold that loyalty, courage, veracity, compassion, and honor as important, above all else. An appreciation and respect of life was also imperative, as it added balance to the warrior character of the Samurai.
Military leader who around AD 500 became the first Germanic ruler to convert to Christianity and who in 510 established a powerful Frankish kingdom.
Literal Translation "money for a man."
The amount paid by a wrongdoer to the family of the person he/she had injured or killed. The amount varied based on social status.
The practice of living the life of a monk.
Frankish ruler who assumed control of his father, P'epin's kingdom upon his death
Any of the Scandinavian seafaring pirates and traders who raided and settled in many parts of northwestern Europe in the 8th-11th centuries.
A region in N France along the English Channel: invaded and settled by Scandinavians in the 10th century. The Franks allowed the Viking settlement in order to convert the Vikings to Christianity.
A person granted the use of land, in return for rendering homage, fealty, and usually military service or its equivalent to a lord or other superior; feudal tenant.
A medieval European political, economic and social system that lasted from the 9th to 15th century. This term describes the relationship between the King and his nobles. The King would grant a plot of land to be worked in exchange for service to the king - especially in times of war
An estate of land, especially one held on condition of feudal service.
A charter of liberties to which the English barons forced King John to give his assent in June 1215.
Composed of two knights from every county, two people from every town, an all of the nobles and bishops throughout England.
Reestablished the Western Roman Empire (including Italy, part of Spain, North Africa, Asia Minor, Palestine, and Syria.[
Head of the Eastern Orthodox Church, the equivalent of the Roman Catholic Pope.
A formal separation of a church into two churches over doctrinal differences.
A series of 8 religious wars between Christians and Muslims that occurred between 1096 and 1291.
A person who does not believe in religion or who adheres to a religion other than one's own.
Full Name: An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub
The first sultan of Egypt and Syria and Sunni Muslim of Kurdish ethnicity who led the Muslim military campaign in the Third Crusade.
POPE INNOCENT III
One of the most powerful and influential of the medieval popes who ruled from 1198 until his death in 1216.
Bubonic plague killed off 1/3 of the Population of Europe 1347
Hostility toward the Jews
1378 - 1417 the division of the Catholic Church
JOAN OF ARC
A peasant from medieval France, who believed that God had chosen her to lead France to victory in its long-running war with England.
French word meaning "rebirth"
A period of European history from the 14th to the 17th century that were inspired by the revival of the classical art and intellect of ancient Greece and Rome.
Gained power and wealth due to a lack of strong Italian Monarchy and because they were port towns that received many of the goods acquired from the silk road.
Wrote the book "the Prince," the most influential works on political power in the western world.
Italian poet of the late middle ages who wrote the epic poem "The Divine Comedy," about the three tiers of the Christian afterlife (purgatory, heaven, and hell) and which was written in Italian rather than Latin
LEONARDO da VINCI
Italian painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, and mathematician, and scientist who lived during and exemplified the renaissance.
German blacksmith and inventor known for developing the first mechanical moveable type printing press.
Belief in the ability of human beings to reason and improve themselves and become more pious.
Based off of the Humanist philosophy which studied literary classics of Greece and Rome. Studied grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy and history - later called "the Humanities"
Protesting against what he viewed as the unprincipled and flippant practices that were disgracing religion in 1587, began the breach between Catholicism, with its insistence on the supremacy of the Church, and Protestantism, asserting the independence of the individual judgment.
a protest against the selling of indulgences, written by Martin Luther.
3 main points of the 95 theses:
Selling indulgences to finance the building of St. Peter's is wrong.
The Pope has no power over Purgatory.
Buying indulgences gives people a false sense of security and endangers their salvation.
EDICT OF WORMS
a decree issued on 25 May 1521 by Emperor Charles V, declaring Martin Luther an outlaw and ordering his books be burned.
PEACE OF AUGSBURG
An agreement formally accepted the division of Christianity in Germany putting an end to religious warfare in Germany in 1555.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
AP WORLD UNIT 2 TEST
AP World History Chapters 4-7
Ancient Medieval Midterm
Vocabulary: Exam 2
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
week 6 terms ap lang
week 6 terms ap lang
Ap bell terms Week 5
AP BELL QUIZ #5