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(A&P) Chapter 7: The Respiratory System

Vital Vocabulary from "Paramedic: Anatomy and Physiology" (AAOS), Chapter 7: The Respiratory System
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alveolar ducts
ducts formed from divisions if the respiratory bronchioles in the lower airway; each ducts ends in clusters known as alveoli.
alveoi
tiny sacs of lung tissue in which gas exchange takes place.
alveolocapillary membrane
the very thin membrane, consisting of only one cell layer, that lies between the alveolus and capillary, through which respiratory exchange between the alveolus and the blood vessels occurs.
asbestosis
a disease of the lungs casused by inhalation of asbestos particles.
asthma
a reversible restrictive lower airway disease.
black lung disease
a disease of the lung caused by consistent inhalation of coal dust.
bronchial arteries
arteries that branch off of the thoracic aorta and supply the lung tissues with blood.
bronchial veins
veins that return deoxygenated blood to the heart from the lungs.
bronchioles
fine subdivisions of the bronchi that give rise to the alveolar ducts.
bronchodilators
medication that is designed to improve lung function.
bronchospasm
constriction of the airway passages of the lungs that accompanies muscle spasms.
carina
the projection of the lowest portion of tracheal cartilage, at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra.
chronic bronchitis
chronic inflammatory condition affecting the bronchi that is associated with excess mucus production that results from overgrowth of the mucous glands in the airway.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
a progressive and irreversible disease of the airway marked by decreased inspiratory and expiratory capacity of the lungs.
conchae
three bony ridges contained within the lateral walls of the nasopharynx.
diffusion
the process by which a gas dissolves in a liquid.
emphysema
destruction of the walls of the alveoli, which creates resistance to expiratory airflow.
epiglottis
the thin plate of cartilage that closes over the glottic opening during swallowing.
esophagas
the tubular organ posterior to the trachea, connecting the pharynx to the stomach.
external nares
the external openings to the nasal cavity; also called the nostrils.
forced expiratory vital capacity (FEVI)
the volume of air exhaled from the lung following a forceful exhalation.
glottis
the opening into the lower airway made up of the true vocal cords and the opening between them.
hard palate
the floor of the nasal cavity.
hilum
the point of entry for the bronchi, vessels, and nerves into the pharynx.
interior nares
the posterior opening from the nasopharynx into the pharynx.
larynx
the opening of the lower airway, which consists of several cartilaginous structures held together by ligaments.
lingula
a small portion of the left lung that is the equivalent of the middle lobe in the right lung.
lungs
the two primary organs of breathing.
mainstream bronchi
the part of the lower airway below the larynx through which air enters the lungs.
meatus
a passage located below each turbinate.
nasal septum
the structure that seperates the nasal cavity into two parts.
nasopharynx
the nasal cavity, which extends from the internal nares to the uvula.
oropharynx
the oral cavity, which extends from the uvula to the epiglottis.
parietal pleura
the pleural membrane that lines the pleural cavity.
partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2)
a measurement of the amount of oxygen in the blood.
partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)
a measurement of the amount of oxygen in the blood.
pH
the measurement of acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
pharynx
the cavity formed by the posterior connection of the oropharynx and nasopharynx.
pleura
membranes of connective tissue that cover the lungs and line the inner borders of the rib cage.
pleural cavity
the cavity formed by the inner borders of the rib cage.
plearal space
a potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura.
primary respiratory acidosis
the decrease in the blood pH secondary to insufficient exhalation of CO2.
primary respiratory alkalosis
increase in the blood pH secondary to excessive exhalation of CO2.
pulmonary function tests
test that assess volumes of air that move into and out of the lungs.
residual volume
the volume of air remaining in the respiratory passages and lungs after a forceful expiration.
respiratory bronchioles
structures fromed by the final branching of the bronchioles.
respiratory center
the part of the brain located in the medulla oblongata that controls the respiratory stimulus.
respiratory system
the organs and structures associated with breathing, gas exchange, and the entrance of air into the body.
restrictive lung disease
diseases such as black lung disease and asbestosis that result in stiffening of the lungs and significantly decreased vital capacity.
secondary bronchi
airway passages in the ungs that are formed from the division of the right and left mainstream bronchi.
spirometer
a device used in pulmonary function testing that measures air leaving the lungs over a specific period of time.
tertiary bronchi
airway passages in the lungs that are formed from branching of the secondary bronchi.
tidal volume
the volume of air inspired during normal inspiration.
trachea
the structure made up of cartilage and other connective tissue that lies immediately inerior to the larynx and conveys air to the mainstream bronchi.
true vocal cords
the inferior portion of the vocal cords that vibrate to produce sound.
turbinates
a set on bony convolutions formed by the conchae in the nasopharynx that help to maintain smooth airflow.
uvula
a small fleshy mass that hangs from the soft palate.
ventilation
the process of moving air into and out of the lungs.
vestibular folds
the superior portion of the vocal cords; also called the false vocal cords.
visceral pleura
the pleural membrane that covers the lungs.
vital capacity
the amount of air moved in and out of the lungs with maximum inspiration and exhalation.