The unintentional exchange of plants, animals, diseases, technologies between the New and Old worlds.
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Olmec Civilization 1200 - 400 BC
The first major civilization in Mesoamerica - lived in the tropical lowlands of present south-central Mexico - left giant stone head statues - influenced Mayas, Aztecs

Mayan Civilization 250 - 950 AD
A Mesoamerican civilization, the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems.

Aztec Civilization 1325 - 1519 Collectively, the people of the allied Central Mexican and American city states
The Aztec empire was controlled primarily by a political body called the Triple Alliance, made up of the Acolhua people of Texcoco, the Mexica in Tenochtitlán, and the Tepaneca people of Tlacopan.

Inca Civilization 11th century - mid 16th century appeared in the Andes region and gradually built a massive kingdom through the military strength of their emperors.
Known as Tawantinsuyu, the Inca state spanned the distance of northern Ecuador to central Chile.
Well-devised agricultural and roadway systems, along with a centralized religion and language, helped maintain a cohesive state.
The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 occurred in the Pueblo Region, which is present day New Mexico. The spanish came in and tried to force the people to convert to christianity. They arrest the pueblo holy men and some of them are put to death. As revenge, Pope (a pueblo man), leads a revolt against the spanish and kill 400 spaniards all together and 35 priests, and burned many churches to the ground. The spanish are forced to leave the area. The significance is: when the spanish arrive 13 years later, they realize they cannot force the pueblo to christianity. For a time they lived in harmony with one another.
Led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519. conquistador responsible for defeat of the Aztec Empire. captured Tenochtitlan. He had heard rumors of a great kingdom in the interior so he began to stroke inland. With the help of the Indian allies, he and his followers won. Although the Aztec confederacy put up a stiff resistance, disease, starvation, and battle brought the city down in 1521. Tenochtitlan is now Mexico City.
Generalizations of Native American Societal Life Before 1492:
- Religion was primitive; large component of their lives
- Burial practices, placing valuables in grave, all very spiritual people
- Mesoamerican cultures: violent religion in which they required human sacrifices
- Aztecs were the worst
- Animistic religion
Complex Trade Network
- exchanged material goods, ideas, marriage partners, religious beliefs
- trade corn with nomadic people for tools/flint
- Cahokia: very large place of trade and flourished through trade

Architecture
- Advanced buildings, irrigation systems, hohokams
Maya, Aztec, Incas
Economic factors that led to exploration of the New World Merchants brought spices to trade for profit: Wanted more goods from the East without extra cost from "middle men". Went looking for ways to get goods in order to make money. Beginning of international trade which was cause and result of Age of Exploration. Political factors that led to exploration in New World Competition between nations: Spanish most powerful nation because they had found gold and silver. English monarchs (kings and queens) sent explorers to New World so they would become dominant country in settlement of North America. Technological factors/advances that led to exploration of New World Caravel - smaller and faster ship that had triangular sails that let it sail into wind. Allowed explorers to travel farther out to sea: The magnetic compass indicated north, south, east, and west. The astrolabe measured the height of the sun above horizon to help plot their location and course. The telescope was important for sighting landmarks at great distances. Casrtography, map-making skills, helped explorers share their knowledge with others - taught at Portuguese School of Navigation.What factors led to Europe's increased exploration and to the discovery of the New World?The Columbian Exchange was the exchange of plants, diseases, animals, etc. between the New and Old Worlds. The Old World brought over wheat, rice, and coffee. Horses, pigs, cows and chickens. Malaria, the common cold. Some diseases from the New World were brought back to the New World as well as items introduced from Natives such as tomatoes and potatoes, severely improving European diets. The New World sent chicle, pumpkin, guinea pigs, llamas, polio, and tuberculosis to the Old World. The diseases introduced to Natives eliminated MANY Native Americans.What is the Columbian Exchange? What are some of the results of the Columbian Exchange?The conquistadors helped secure land for Spain and the encomienda system allowed them to eliminate/control the local natives 'easier' since it was technically 'legal'.What was the role of conquistadores and encomienda in establishing a Spanish Empire in the New World?Spain ran all of South and Central America, except Brazil which was Portuguese. They ran Florida, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada and most of California. They were challenged by local natives and other European countries.What was the geographic extent of the Spanish Empire in the New World? What nations were challenging Spain's dominance in the New World and where?The movement against the holy roman church, sparked by luther because of the corruption , a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churchesProtestant Reformation(1580-June 21, 1631) was an English soldier, sailor, and author. He is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia, and his brief association with the Native American girl Pocahontas during an altercation with the Powhatan Confederacy and her father, Chief Powhatan. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony (based at Jamestown) between 1607 and 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay.John SmithOne of the early English settlers of North America. He is credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the Colony of Virginia and is known as the husband of Pocahontas, daughter of the chief of the Powhatan Confederacy.John RolfeCompanies made up of group of investors who bought the right to establish plantations from the kingJoint-stock companyThe first conflict between De La Warr and the Powhatan Confederacy, ended in a peace settlement that included the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe. The Second was initiated by the Natives. The peace treaty banished the Confederacy from their Chesapeake lands and separated them permanently from white settlements.Anglo-Powhatan WarWas a late 16th-century attempt to establish a permanent English settlement in know present day Virginia.RoanokeA Powhatan woman (the daughter of Powhatan) who befriended the English at Jamestown and is said to have saved Captain John Smith's life and married John Rolfe. (1595-1617)PocahontasIn the Virginia Colony, was founded on May 14, 1607. It is commonly regarded as the first permanent English settlement in what is now the United States, following several earlier failed attempts. It was founded by Captain John Smith. People went to it cause there was trees for wood, jobs, economic opertunities, food, glass, and landJamestownThe first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619. Over time, the name came to represent the entire official legislative body of the Colony of Virginia, and later, after the American Revolution, the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia.In Britain, the term "burgess" had referred to a Parliamentary representative, as of a borough.House of BurgessesA law passed by the colonial English legislature to provide a legal base for slavery in the Caribbean island of Barbados.Barbados Slave CodeProtestant Reformation Spanish Armada Increase in English Spirit Population boom Depression Landlords enclosing cropsWhat international events and domestic changes prompted England to begin colonization?It sucked really, really, REALLLLLYYYYY bad. There was a lot of disease and obviously since nothing was established they had difficulty cultivating the land, maintaining their religion to the required degree, and coming together as a community.What was it like for the early settlers of Jamestown?The English brought diseases that eliminated most of the Native's population and the Europeans had MUCH better weaponry.Why were Native Americans unable to repel English colonization of North America?Tobacco and rice. These crops led to an emphasis on slavery, which led to a sh-t load of racism. Political and everyday power coming from the size of ones' plantations or land.What crops were important to the English colonies in the south of North America? How did the cultivation of those crops shape those colonies?1.In North America, there was less racial mixing and less willingness to recognize the offspring of such unions and accord them a place in society. 2.Slavery in North America was different, being perhaps less harsh there than in the sugar colonies. 3.By 1750, slaves in the United States had become self-reproducing, and a century later almost all North American slaves had been born in the New World. That was never the case in Brazil and the Caribbean. 4.Many more slaves were voluntarily set free by their owners in Brazil than was ever the case in North America, 5.In North America, any African ancestry, no matter how small or distant, made a person "black"; not in Brazil, Moreover, color was only one criterion of class status in Brazil, and the perception of color changed with the educational or economic standing of individuals.How did the English sugar plantations in the Caribbean differ from the English colonies in the south of North America?More labor was needed and the population was low. Slaves were an obvious solution since many also viewed it as 'appropriate' religiously.How did slavery develop in North America during colonization?Broad-acred, these outposts of empire were all in some degree devoted to exporting commercial agricultural products. Profitable staple crops were the rule, notably tobacco and rice, though to a lesser extent in small-farm North Carolina. Slavery was found in all the plantation colonies, though only after 1750 in reform-minded Georgia. Immense acreage in the hands of a favored few fostered a strong aristocratic atmosphere, except in North Carolina and to some extent in debtor-tinged Georgia. The wide scattering of plantations and farms, often along stately rivers, retarded the growth of cities and made the establishment of churches and schools both difficult and expensive. In 1671 the governor of Virginia thanked God that no free schools or printing presses existed in his colony. All the plantation colonies permitted some religious toleration. The tax-supported Church of England became the dominant faith, though weakest of all in nonconformist North Carolina.What features were shared by Virginia, Maryland, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia? What distinguished them from one another?(12 January 1587/8 - 26 March 1649) led a group of English Puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Company in 1629 and was elected their governor on April 8, 1630. Between 1639 and 1648 he was voted out of governorship and re-elected a total of 12 times.John WinthropSet of beliefs that the Puritans followed. In the 1500's John Calvin, the founder of Calvinism, preached virtues of simple worship, strict morals, pre-destination and hard work. This resulted in Calvinist followers wanting to practice religion, and it brought about wars between Huguenots (French Calvinists) and Catholics, that tore the French kingdom apart.John Calvin/CalvinismThey were a group of religious reformists who wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church. Their ideas started with John Calvin in the 16th century and they first began to leave England in 1608. Later voyages came in 1620 with the Pilgrims and in 1629, which was the Massachusetts Bay Colony.PuritansA contract made by the voyagers on the Mayflower agreeing that they would form a simple government where majority ruled.Mayflower CompactThe migration of English people from England to the New World between the years of 1630 and 1640 was largely because King James opposed the growing Puritan population of England. It was also due to a opportunity to start anew and make lots of money.Great English Migration1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.King Philip's WarA series of Acts passed in the English Parliament in 1651,1660 & 1663. The colonies represented a lucrative source of wealth and trade. The Navigation Acts were designed to regulate colonial trade and enabled England to collect duties (taxes) in the Colonies.Navigation LawsA reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.Glorious RevolutionA member of the Religious Society of Friends, a Christian movement founded by George Fox circa 1650 and devoted to peaceful principles. Central to the Quakers' belief is the doctrine of the "Inner Light," or sense of Christ's direct working in the soul. This has led them to reject both formal ministry and all set forms of worship. The guy with the luscious locks on your oatmeal container.QuakersShe preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.Anne Hutchinson1681- William Penn received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers. His colony, Pennsylvania, allowed religious freedom.William Penn1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government. Became very influential and very populous.Massachusetts Bay ColonySeparatists (which included the Pilgrims) believed that the Church of England could not be reformed, and so started their own congregations.SeparatistsAn armed conflict between the Pequot tribe and an alliance of the English colonists of the Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, and Saybrook colonies and their Native American allies (the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes) which occurred between 1634 and 1638.Pequot War1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.New England Confederation1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.Dominion of New EnglandBritish Crown policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws meant to keep American colonies obedient to England.Salutary neglectWilliam Penn's term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom for all.Holy experimentThe pilgrims believed that they were true Christians, determined to "purify" the Christian church and return to a scripture-based service. These "Puritans" were not satisfied with the reforms introduced after the separation of the English church from the Catholic Holy See in Rome. Nevertheless, the Puritans were seen both as seditious and heretical for their beliefs. The King's agents persecuted them. In 1593, the English parliament outlawed independent congregations. Attendance of English (Anglican) church services was made obligatory. But across the country, groups of Puritans continued to gather. After a bunch of moving they came to the New World and started Plymouth.What religious turmoil in the Old World resulted in the little colony of Plymouth in the New World?Both of those colonies were formed by Puritans. The Puritans, while not technically kicked out of England, were certainly very unpopular because they had been very closely tied up in the English Civil War shortly before that. I don't know that you could say they were being "repressed" or "persecuted", but they didn't like the way England was run religiously by the Anglican church or politically by the king and parliament. They came to the New World to set up a government and way of life as they envisioned it ought to be (essentially a world with sex, no games, no singing, and no fun in general). They weren't tolerant by any stretch of the imagination, but they certainly helped lay the foundation for religious freedom by declaring that they were going to found a place where they could worship as they wished. Additionally, they tended to have a more democratic church organization and a sort of crude judicial system which also influenced American governmental development.How did the colony of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay Colony contribute to the origins of American independence and government?Many did not agree with the religious beliefs of others throughout the colonies so they would simple gather those that agreed with them and start a new colony.What role did religious intolerance play in the founding of New England colonies other than Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay and in the founding of some middle colonies?The French, Swedish, Dutch, Spanish.Besides England, what other nations influenced the colonization of the Atlantic coast of North America?Had a huge number of Quakers. Blue laws helped maintain a high level of society. Most importantly, Pennsylvania quickly gained different types of people, creating a 'modern' atmosphere.How did the colonization of Pennsylvania differ from the New England colonies and other middle colonies?Migrants who, in exchange for transatlantic passage, bound themselves to a colonial employer for a term of service, typically between four and seven years. Their migration addressed the chronic labor shortage in the colonies and facilitated settlement.Indentured servantsUprising of Virginia backcountry farmers and indentured servants led by planter Nathaniel Bacon; initially a response to Governor William Berkeley's refusal to protect backcountry settlers from Indian attacks, the rebellion eventually grew into a broader conflict between impoverished settlers and the planter elite.Bacon's RebellionVirginian governor who disliked wretched bachelors (poor, endebted, discontented, and armed); disliked by wretched bachelors for friendly relations with IndiansGovernor BerkeleyA legal grant of land to settlers by the Virginia Company with the intent of expanding settlement within the American British Colonies.Head-right systemMinister, part of Puritan New England important families, a sholar, one of first americans to pemote vaccination of smallpox when it was believed to be dangerous, strongly believed on witches, encouraged witch trials in salemCotton MatherA. A large triangular trading system between English mainland colonies, the West Indie, and the African shore. Molasses is traded from the Indies up to the colonies where it is distilled into rum. The rum is traded to Africa in exchange for slaves who are traded in the indies for more molasses. B. Brought a large system of trade that greatly stimulated both the colonies in the Indies and on the mainland as well as bringing slaves to the Indies and back up to the mainland.Atlantic slave tradeThe climate was warm and swampy, infested with malarial mosquitos. Disease drastically shortened lifespans of the people in this region. Most of the settlers were young, single men and those that did not die from overwork, disease, or malnutrition (because the climate was hostile to many things) had to scramble for the very few women there, which made family .ife hard, increased unmarried pregnancy rates, and made the population growth slow. The climate which killed men allowed for women (as widows) to have far more property rights than women in the northern colonies. Immigration was the only way, at first to sustain the population. Tobacco was one crop that thrived in this harsh, hot climate, so the cash crop is what this whole region's economy was shaped around.How did the climate in the southern colonies influence life expectancy, family life, immigration, and economic development?Bacon's rebellion was led by a group of former indentured servants who were now free, without work, idle, and looking for trouble. With slaves they were never free, never looking for trouble, and never out on the prowl. After the 1676 rebellion led by Bacon, the colonies decided that black slaves from Africa would be the way to go, since they never got their freedom.What role did Bacon's Rebellion play in the adoption and expansion of slavery in the southern colonies?Southern: The climate was warm and swampy, infested with malarial mosquitos. Disease drastically shortened lifespans of the people in this region. Most of the settlers were young, single men and those that did not die from overwork, disease, or malnutrition (because the climate was hostile to many things) had to scramble for the very few women there, which made family .ife hard, increased unmarried pregnancy rates, and made the population growth slow. The climate which killed men allowed for women (as widows) to have far more property rights than women in the northern colonies. Immigration was the only way, at first to sustain the population. Tobacco was one crop that thrived in this harsh, hot climate, so the cash crop is what this whole region's economy was shaped around. Northern: the climate was cooler and the water was cleaner which slowed the spread of killer microbes. Unlike in the chesapeake where moving there would make you loose 10 yrs. off your life, moving to NE would add 10 years (L.E.=70) -People moved to NE as families unlike in the chesapeake where it was mostly single young men. -In NE, the population grew quickly and naturally (not through immigration like in the chesapeake) and marriage happened young and there were less pregnancies outside of marriage. Early marriage also caused high birthrates. -The soil in NE was not conducive to mass farming, so they turned instead to shipbuilding and fishing, unlike the plantation farming in the Chesapeake.How were life expectancy, family life, immigration, and economic development different in New England as compared with the southern colonies?Life for the colonial women was mostly work on a farm and in the house. Since most people still lived on a farm the women did the tedious work while the men did more 'important' work. In the house they did cleaning, cooking, and take care of kids. A colonial wife didn't have any legal rights but a single women or a widow could run their own business.What were the differences in the legal standing of women in the southern colonies and in the New England colonies?All wanted a fresh start to live how they wanted. This ended up being summarized in three words: Sex and drugs, and rock & roll, ALRIGHT!In what ways were all American colonists similar?Frontiersmen of Scots-Irish origin from along the Susquehanna River in central Pennsylvania who formed a vigilante group to retaliate in 1763 against local American Indians in the aftermath of the French and Indian War and Pontiac's Rebellion.Paxon BoysA slave rebellion that began on 9 September 1739, in the colony of South Carolina. It was the largest slave uprising in the British mainland colonies.Stono RebellionThe trade of slaves, cash crops, goods, and other things between West Africa, the Caribbean and Americas, and Europe.Triangle tradeWhen each congregation of the Protestant church independently runs its own affairs.CongregationalistsA tradition within Christianity including the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices, and church structures.AnglicansOne of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A renowned polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, freemason, postmaster, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat.Ben FranklinScotch-Irish Americans, descendants of Ulster Scots who first migrated to America in large numbers in the 18th and 19th centuries.Scots-Irishan uprising in New York City, in the British Province of New York, of 23 enslaved Africans who killed nine whites and injured another six.New York slave revoltIs based on theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560-1609) and his historic supporters known as Remonstrants.ArminianismAn evangelical and revitalization movement that swept Protestant Europe and British America.Great AwakeningOld lights- orthodox members of the clergy who believed that the new ways of revivals and emotional preaching were unnecessary vs. New lights- the more modern-thinking members of the clergy who strongly believed in the Great AwakeningOld lights vs. new lightsIn 1775 the ratio of Englishmen to colonists was 3-1 while it was 20-1 in 1700.How did population growth in the eventually rebellious colonies compare with England's?English, African, Scottish, German, Irish, Dutch, and lots of other European countries.What ethnicities contributed to the mosaic of the thirteen colonies?Mainly free labor but also some of an insight in the suffering of others and how horrible slavery is. Also a piece of different culture.What contributions did enslaved Africans provide the colonies?It was more structured naturally since it has more time to develop. The only real difference was one's ability to climb a social ladder. In the Old World you were born into your position while in the New World you could become more powerful and influential.How did eighteenth-century America's social hierarchy compare with seventeenth-century America's social hierarchy? How did both compare with the Old World's?Forestry Fishing, blacksmithing, carpentry, iron production.What was the leading industry in eighteenth-century America? What other industries were important?It made peoples' lives more meaningful through encouraging religion THROUGHOUT the average day.How did the Great Awakening influence religion in America?Benjamin Franklin, Charles Wilson, Phillis Wheatley, and John Trumbull.Who are some of America's noteworthy artists and writers from the eighteenth century?They were similar in that they all ruled themselves in some way. The main difference is in colonies like Virginia with the House of Burgesses and some the duke ruling New York, tying back to a higher form of government.How were the colonial governments similar and different, and how influential was England in colonial governance?