88 terms

Jeopardy 49: Science and Technology in the Twentieth Century

STUDY
PLAY
Site of the first sustained, powered flight
Kitty Hawk
Pioneers of sustained, powered flight
Wilbur and Orville Wright
The first inexpensive, dependable, mass-produced car
the Model T Ford
Major communications medium from the 1950s on
television
Worldwide linkage of computer networks
the Internet
Portable, wireless, handheld telephone
a cellular phone
Personal, electronic messages
e-mail
These two sources replaced kerosene for lighting.
natural gas and electricity
Major communications medium in the 1930s and 1940s
radio
Innovative addition to motion pictures in 1927
sound
Ford's method of producing cars
the assembly line (or mass production)
Tiny devices that control electronic signals
transistors
Device that produces a thin, intense beam of light
a laser
Miniature electronic device consisting of thousands of transistors on a single chip
a microprocessor
Type of engine powered by batteries
an electric engine
Most common semiconductor material; nickname of a valley in California
silicon
Devices that do jobs too boring, difficult, or dangerous for people
robots
Mass production made these much more available and affordable.
consumer goods
Type of engine that replaced steam for trains and ships
the diesel engine
Solid material that conducts electricity and is used to make transistors
a semiconductor
Faster, smaller computers that replaced the first computers
"second generation computers" (personal computers)
Devices that reduces harmful automobile emissions
a catalytic converter
Famed German scientist who revolutionized physics
Albert Einstein
Einstein's theory about space and time
the theory of relativity (1905)
Center of the atom, first described by Rutherford
the nucleus
Idea that the universe began as a result of an explosion
the big bang theory (1927)
Elementary particles; the opposite of ordinary particles
antimatter (antiparticles)
High-energy particles from outer space
cosmic rays
Ability of some metals to conduct electricity with no resistance at temperatures near absolute 0
superconductivity
Tiny subatomic particle with positive charge, discovered by Rutherford
a proton
Einstein's famous equation
E=mc^2
Study of the Earth based on the principals of physics
geophysics
Physicists found more and more of these particles after 1945.
subatomic particles
Glass filaments that transmit data via light pulses
optical fibers
Italian-born physicist whose team achieved the first controlled nuclear chain reaction
Enrico Fermi
Planck's theory that energy is released in definite packages
the quantum theory
Englishman who disintegrated atoms, showing they were not solid
Ernest Rutherford
Small, rapidly rotating star that emits radio waves
a pulsar
Extremely luminous object at the center of a distant galaxy
a quasar
Particle that may be the basic subunit of neutrons and protons
a quark
Billionth of a second
a nanosecond
Idea that the Earth's outer shell consists of rigid, moving plates
the plate tectonic theory
Device used to create high-velocity beams of subatomic particles
the particle accelerator
Treatment of disease with chemicals, often used for cancer patients
chemotherapy
The first antibiotic
penicillin
Units of heredity, identified around 1910
genes
Vaccines were developed in the early 1950s for this dreaded childhood disease.
polio
Father of psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud
Incurable disease of the immune system, first identified in 1979
AIDS
Term for the use of disease-causing agents by terrorists
bioterrorism
The study of inborn characteristics and their inheritance
genetics
Cell structures that contain genes
chromosomes
Creation of an identical copy of a living organism using DNA
cloning
The substance that carries genetic information
DNA
Drugs that fight disease-causing microbes
antibiotics
Computerized axial tomographic scanner; takes cross-sectional X rays of the body
a CAT scanner
Delicate surgery that uses microscopes
microsurgery
Brain disorder involving memory loss, a concern of older people
Alzheimer's disease
Surgical replacement of a diseased body organ
organ transplant
Field of medicine that focuses on genetic diseases
molecular medicine
Technology that produces images of the body's internal organs
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Altering of an organism's hereditary makeup
genetic engineering
Project devoted to mapping all human genetic material (DNA)
the human genome project
The study of extremely low temperatures; used to freeze living body parts
cryogenics
Doctors who specialize in care of newborn infants
neonatologists
The first artificial satellite sent into Earth orbit, in 1957
Sputnik I
The U.S. manned spacecraft designed to be reusable
the space shuttle
Huge industry that designs and builds space equipment
the aerospace industry
A Soviet space pilot
a cosmonaut
Space shuttle that exploded in 1986
Challenger
The U.S. space agency
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
The first men on the moon
Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin
The moon-landing flight satellite
Apollo 11
The first U.S. space laboratory
Skylab
First man to circle the Earth in a spaceship
Yuri Gagarin
First American to circle the Earth in a spaceship
John Glenn
Space between the stars
interstellar space
Satellite on which a crew lives for an extended period
a space station
Unmanned spacecraft that explore other planets
space probes
The first communications satellite
Telstar
First planet to experience a satellite landing
Venus
Soviet space station that plunged into the Pacific Ocean in 2000
Mir
Orbiting astronomy tool launched in 1990
the Hubble space telescope
Radiation belt that circle the earth, discovered by satellites and probes
the Van Allen Belt
U.S. and Soviet spacecraft that linked up in 1975
Apollo and Soyus
The first animal sent into space, a Soviet dog
Laika
The first woman in space
Valentina Tereshkova
The first U.S. space shuttle
Columbia