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Medical Math Dosage Calculations
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Gravity
Terms in this set (60)
Ratio
used to indicate a relationship between two numbers
(A 1:5 solution contains 1 part medication to 5 parts solution)
Proportions
an equation of two ratios of equal value 3:4=6:8
Means and Extremes
Means (middle terms)
Extremes (end terms)
the product of the means is equal to the product of the extremes when multiplied
Solving for x in ratio and proportion
12:9=8:x
12x=72
x=6
If a capsule contains a dosage of 500 mg....
1 cap:500 mg
If a solution contains 250 mg of medication in each 1 mL....
250 mg:1 mL
(1 mL contains 250 mg of medication)
1 kg = ___g
1,000 g
1 g=___mg
1,000 mg
1 mg=___mcg
1,000 mcg
1 L=___mL
1,000 mL
1 mL=___L
0.001 L
Kids Give Me Migranes
kg>g>mg>mcg
Teaspoon
t
= 5 mL
Tablespoon
T
1 T = 3 t
=15 mL
Ounce (fluid)
oz
1 oz = 2 T
30 mL
Cup
C
1 C = 8 oz
240 mL
Pint
pt
1 pt = 2 C (16oz)
500 mL
Quart
qt
1 qt = 4 C = 2 pt = 32 oz
1,000 mL
Pound
lb
1 lb = 16 oz
2.2 lb = 1 kg (1,000 g)
Units
express amount of medication present in 1 mL of solutions (USP unit)
ex. heparin, insulin, penicillin
International Unit
unit of potency used to measure vitamins and chemicals
(amount of medication needed to produce a certain effect)
Milliunit
1/1,000 of a unit (1 unit = 1,000 milliunits)
milliequvalent (mEq)
used to measure electrolytes and the ionic activity of a medication
ex. potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium
1 t = ___ mL
5 mL
1 T = ___ mL
15 ml (3t)
1 oz = ___ mL
30 mL or 2 T
1 pt = ___ mL
500 mL or 16 oz
1 qt= ___mL?
1,000 mL or 32 oz or 2 pt
1 c = ___ oz
8 oz
16 oz = ___ lb
1 lb
2.2 lb = ___ kg
1 kg or 1,000 g
1 in = ___ cm
2.5 cm
Intake
amount of fluid taken in orally (po), by feeding tube, or paternally
fluids/solids that become liquid at room temp, IV fluids
Output
amount of fluids that exit the body
diarrhea, vomitus, gastric suction, urine, IV fluids (1 oz = 30 mL)
To maintain proper renal function, output ____ mL/hr
30 mL/hr - 50 mL/hr
2.2 lb = ___ kg
1 kg (divide by 2.2)
16 oz = ___ lb
1 lb
Ex. 2 oz = 0.1 lb
A child's weight is 10 lb 2 oz which equals ___ kg
4.6 kg
CR
controlled release
LA
long acting
XL
long acting
DS
double strength
SR
sustained release
ES
extra strength
EC
enteric coated (medication should not be crushed)
IV
intravenous
IM
intramuscular
Subcut
subcutaneous
Enteral
into gastrointestinal tract through a tube
Total Volume
quantity contained in a bottle, vial, or capsule
liquids=total fluid volume
Directions for Reconstituting a medication
found on the label, must be followed
Precautions
safety, effectiveness, or administrative considerations must be followed (shake well, protect from light, may be habit forming)
Military Time
first two numbers are the hour, second two numbers are the minutes
Example: 8:45 am =
0845 (add zero, remove colon)
Example: 7:50 pm =
1950 (add 1200 to time, remove colon)
Generic Name
official name given for a medication by manufacturer who first develops it
(directly under brand name, may be in parentheses, may be followed by USP or NF)
Trade Name
brand name given by manufacturer
followed by R or TM
(R=legally registered US patent & trademark office)
(TM=trademark)
Dosage Strength
weight/amount of medication in a specific unit of measure
(solids=amount of medication in a tablet/capsule)
(liquids=amount of medication in a certain amount of solution)
Controlled Medical Labeling
classified into schedules that rank meds according to their abuse potential and physical/psychological dependence
(I=highest abuse potential, V=lowest abuse potential)
Order 40 mg p.o. of a medication.
Available: 20 mg tablets.
How many tabs will you administer?
20mg 40mg
------- = --------
1 tab x
20x = 40
---- ---- = 2 tabs
20 20
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