Upgrade to remove ads
Unit 1 A&P Study Set
Terms in this set (106)
The study of the general form and superficial markings of an organism is called _____ anatomy.
Anatomical features that change during illness are studied in ________ anatomy.
Anatomy uses a special language, called ________ terminology, which involves the use of word roots, prefixes, suffixes, and combining forms to construct terms related to the body in health and disease.
The trunk is subdivided into the abdominopelvic and _______ cavity?
Jared was working in a hot dish room all afternoon, sweating. After his shift, he stepped out into a cold December night and got "goose bumps." What type of homeostatic regulation best describes these physiological responses?
During wind sprints for field hockey practice, Sarah noticed that her face felt very hot and looked red. Of the choices below, which would be considered the receptor(s) for the homeostatic response to Sarah's running?
Temperature sensors in Sarah's skeletal muscles and blood vessels
Which of the following options best describe the main concept(s) associated with the study of anatomy and physiology?
All responses are correct....the principle of complementarity of structure and function, the predisposition towards internal balance known as homeostasis, and the hierarchy of structural relationships
What is an ion?
an atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons
When an ionic bond forms, which part(s) of the atoms are directly involved?
How do ions form ionic bonds?
Ions of opposite electrical charges are attracted to each other to balance the charges.
Calcium's atomic number is 20. It forms ions with 18 electrons. What is the electrical charge of a calcium ion?
In a covalent bond,
Atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
Involve the sharing of one to three pairs of electrons
Which of the following is true of polar covalent bonds?
electrons are shared unequally
A molecule of water (H2O) is formed by what type of bond?
polar covalent bonds
Formation of hydrogen bonds requires hydrogen atoms and what else?
polar covalent bonds
Which of the following correctly ranks the types of chemical bonds, in order, from strongest to weakest?
covalent, ionic, hydrogen....in covalent bonds,electrons are shared between atoms;ionic bonds electrons or lost or gained;hydrogen bonds are not true chemical bonds-they are weak attractions due to slight electrical imbalances. No electrons are directly involved.
Which of the following distinguishes hydrogen bonds from covalent bonds?
Only hydrogen bonds can form between molecules.
Which of the following is not a result of hydrogen bonds?
Two hydrogen atoms join together to form a molecule of hydrogen gas....Hydrogen bonds occur when there are polar covalent molecules present, but hydrogen atoms join with each other through non-polar covalent bonds.
Which of following is an exchange reaction?
Hydrolysis is an example of which type of reaction?
In a chemical equation, what are the chemicals in the left side of the arrow called?
Which of the following are especially important for growth and repair processes?
synthesis reactions...combine smaller molecules and make larger ones
Which of the following best describes dehydration synthesis?
Two smaller molecules join together after a water molecule is removed from between them.
Which of these pairs indicate an incorrect coupling of reversible reactions?
Hydrolysis and breakdown
Insulin and glucagon are hormones,not enzymes, but one promotes production of glycogen, which is how we store glucose in our cells, while other promotes the release of glucose from the stored glycogen. In this reaction, is insulin affecting the catabolic or the anabolic reaction?
Consider sweetened ice tea. Which of the following is a solute?
Think about a 10% saline solution (saline refers to salt.). Which of the following is a correct statement?
It contains 10% solute and 90% solvent.
Foods are broken down into their building blocks by adding water. This would be an example of which characteristic of water?
Water acts as a reactant.
Water acts to dissolve molecules in the body. How does water dissolve the salt (NaCl) in your mouth from a salty pretzel?
Water acts as a solvent because the partial negative charge on the oxygen in water attracts sodium, while the partial positive charge on hydrogen attracts chloride. This results in the separation of sodium from chloride, thus breaking the ionic bond.
In plasma, a typical body fluid, protein floating around would be considered to be which of the following?
a solute, specifically both a colloid and an electrolyte
Electrolytes are charged particles ions that are dissolved in body fluids. Which of the following ions would be considered a major anion or the body?
What pH is more acidic, a pH of 3,7, or 9
pH of a 3
Cortisol is a type of lipid hormone. Which type of lipid would cortisol be classified as?
Cortisol is synthesized from cholesterol so it is a steroid
Based on the general theme of conservation, which of the following is most likely to happen if an athlete breaks his arm and must wear a cast and not use that arm for six weeks?
Muscles in the injured arm will get smaller because they are not being used.
When your muscles contract to move your body, such as during walking, work is done, and work requires energy. Based on the Law of Conservation of Energy, from where does this energy come?
chemical energy...is in the foods we eat then is transferred to ATP, and that is energy used by our muscles to perform their work
Which parts of atoms can interact (react) to form chemical bonds?
valence electrons (outermost layer is the most reactive)
Atoms of oxygen have a total of 8 electrons. Are these atoms stable, and why or why not?
No, because the atoms have only 6 valence electrons, but need 8 for stability.
Carbon atoms have four valence electrons. Are they likely to react with other atoms, and why or why not?
Yes, because they can become more stable by doing so.
Which of the following is not produced through chemical bonding?
atoms...react through chemical bonding to form larger...chemical bonding begins with atoms...it does not produce them...all structures discussed in A&P are made from atoms through chemical bonding.
Which of the following is a product in the following reaction? Glucose+ fructose -->sucrose +H2O
The number and arrangement of electrons in an atom's outer energy level determines the atom's
Isotopes of an element differ from each other in the number of
neutrons in the nucleus
A substance containing atoms of different elements that are bonded together is called a(n)
Which of the following chemical equations illustrates a typical decomposition reaction?
The speed, or rate, of a chemical reaction is influenced by
A,B, and C are all correct...the presence of catalysts, the temperature, and concentration of reactants
If an element is composed of atoms with an atomic number of 6 and a mass number of 14, then a neutral atom of this element contains
6 protons and 8 neutrons
Which number represents the greatest amount of energy that must be overcome during the reaction? Which number represents the lowest amount of reaction energy?
Chemical reactions that absorb energy are said to be?
Each of the following is an inorganic compound except?
Water has the ability to dissolve polar covalent molecules like sucrose by?
forming hydration spheres around the molecule.
__________is a type of indigestible polysaccharide
In sickle cell anemia, there is a replacement in the amino sequence of hemoglobin of glutamic acid by valine. What is the difference between glutamic acid and valine?
The R groups between the amino acids are different
What structural differences make adenine and guanine different from cytosine, thymine, and uracil?
Adenine and guanine are double ringed nitrogenous bases, while cytosine, thymine, and uracil are double ringed
_________structure resource primarily from hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between the R- groups of the polypeptide chain and water?
The process that transport solid objects such as bacteria into the cell is called
_______ion concentration is high in extracellular fluids and _______ion concentration is high in cytoplasm
The synthesis of a functional polypeptide using the information in a mRNA strand is?
The interphase of the cell life cycle is divided into?
G0, G1, S, G2
At resting membrane potential, the cytoplasmic side of the membrane surface of the cell is
Which of the following is the main component of the cell membrane?
Which of the following is a characteristic of the cell membrane?
Which of the following is not a major function of proteins in the cell membrane?
forming the entire glycocalyx
Which part of a cell membrane is usually in contact with the interstitial fluid?
Phosphate heads of phospholipids
Which of the following is NOT one of the three major components of a typical eukaryotic cells?
Which of the following acts as the digestive system of the cell, breaking down materials?
Where in a typical eukaryotic cell would you expect to find genes?
in the DNA within the cell's nucleus
Which of the following statements about cells is FALSE?
Cells join together to form organelles, which then form our organs and organ systems.
Which of the following does not play a role in translation?
Which of the following does not occur during RNA processing?
mRNA attaches to the small subunit of a ribosome.
Which of the following events occurs during transcription?
A molecule of RNA is formed based on the sequence of nucleotides in DNA.
Which of the following is a correct statement about mRNA?
mRNA moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm following RNA processing.
The site of translation is?
ribosomes in the cell cytoplasm.
A primary active transport process is one in which __________.
molecules move through transport proteins that have been activated by ATP
Some transport processes use transport proteins in the plasma membrane, but do not require ATP. This type of transport is known as _____.
The majority of water molecules moving across plasma membranes by osmosis do so via a process that is most similar to_______?
The sodium-potassium pump uses ATP to love sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This statement describes_____?
Primary active transport
A vesicles fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to the extra cellular fluid. This statement describes_____?
In order for a cell to divide, all of its chromosomes must be duplicated in a process called DNA replication. During which phase of the cell cycle does DNA replication occur?
The cell cycle is divided into two main parts: interphase and cell division. Interphase is the period in which the cell is performing normal functions and not actively engaged in cell division. Most of your body's cells spend a lot of their time in interphase. Before a cell can divide, what must occur during interphase?
Each chromatin fiber is duplicated in the nucleus
The correct order of the four phases of mitosis is_____
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
One of the characteristics of cancer cells is an increased need for protein production. Of the following choices, which organelle would be most closely associated with meeting this need?
may exhibit metastasis
Differentiation requires _______ of particular genes to produce cell populations with _______ capabilities that for tissues?
In general, the cell cycle lasts about 24 hours in a normal dividing cell. However, mitosis occurs over 1-3 hours, much less than the other stages. Which of the following choices best explains why?
During mitosis, cells are non-functional.
Diffusion is important in body fluids, because it tends to
Increase local concentration gradients
When a cell is placed into a solution the cell will lose water through osmosis. This process results in_____ of red blood cells?
If a cell lacked ribosomes, it would not be able to
Suppose that a DNA segment has the following nucleotide sequence: CTC-ATA-CGA-TTC-AAG-TTA. Which nucleotide sequences would a complementary mRNA strand have?
The sodium-potassium exchange pump
is composed of a carrier protein located in the plasma membrane
Which statement about tissues is correct?
An organ combines several different tissues
epithelial cells that line the small intestine transport nutrients into the body. Directional transport is associated with the epithelial tissue property of?
The epithelium that lines the body cavities is known as
The three categories of connective tissues are
connective tissue proper, fluid connective tissues, and supporting connective tissues.
The three major subdivisions of the extracellular fluid in the body are
plasma, interstitial fluid, and lymph
A tissue that provides strength and support for areas subjected to stresses from many directions is
dense irregular connective tissue
epithelia & connective tissues combine to form______ that cover and protect other structures and tissues in the body?
A type of muscle that does not contain gap junctions is______?
All of the following are true of neurons except that
they are a very specialized form of connective tissue.
What cell is activated during an injury to connective tissue that stimulates the inflammatory response?
Axons and dendrites usually are found in cells of which tissue?
Axons, dendrites, and a cell body are are characteristic of cells located in
Tissue changes with age can result from
hormonal changes and improper nutrition
Mucous secretions that coat the passageways of the digestive and respiratory tracts result from _________ secretion
Three major types of cartilage in the body are
hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
The primary function of serous membranes in the body is to
minimize friction between opposing surfaces
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
BSC 215 Assignment 1:Exam 1:Chapter 2
Mastering Anatomy and Physiology, Ch 2, Chemistry…
ap chpt 2
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Learning Frameworks Test #2
A&P Unit 3
Unit 2 A&P 1