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48 terms

Executive Branch

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Appointment Power
The president's power to appoint officers, subject to Congressional approval
Appropriation
setting money aside for a specific programs
Bureaucracy
Bureaus, administrators, and agencies under the executive branch
Cabinet
Advisory board to the president, made up of the heads of the executive departments
Census
A periodic counting of the population
Chief Diplomat
The president's role of conducting foreign policy
Chief Executive
The president's role where he acts as the boss of the executive agencies
Civil Service
When people are hired for jobs in political positions because of their qualifications instead of political patronage or personal favor.
Commander-in-Chief
The president's role of commanding the US Armed forces
Continuing resolution
A bill passed by Congress and agreed to by the president that allows the federal government to continue paying its bills until a new budget is approved.
Debt
the total amount the government owes to private investors
Deficit
The amount by which the government's spending exceeds its income.
Depression
A period of drastic decline in the national economy, characterized by decreasing business activity, falling prices, and unemployment.
Discretionary spending
Spending that is optional and is determined on a yearly basis.
Entitlement programs
Programs where the government is legally required to make payments to eligible recipients
Executive agreement
An agreement made between the executive branch of the U.S. government and a foreign government without ratification by the Senate.
Executive branch
The branch of government that includes the president and other executive agencies, and is responsible for enforcing the laws.
Executive order
A declaration issued by the president that has the force of law
Executive privilege
The doctrine that the president has the authority to withold information from other branches of government, including the courts. By extension, executive privilege implies that presidents are not subject to certain legal proceedings.
Fiscal Policy
A government's policy of expenditure and revenue.
Fiscal Year
The twelve-month period designated by the government (October 1-September 30) for budget and accounting purposes
Freedom of Information Act
A 1966 law that requires the federal government to release any identifiable public information in any administrative agency.
Honeymoon
The period at the beginning of a president's term during which the president generally has a good relationship with Congress.
Imperial presidency
a president that uses more power than the constitution allows
Impoundment
When a president decides not to spend a sum of money appropriated by Congress.
Independent Agencies
an agency of the United States government that is created by an act of Congress and is independent of the executive agencies
Inflation
A gradual rise in prices
Interest rate
yearly price charged by a lender to a borrower in order for the borrower to obtain a loan, usually expressed as a percentage of the total amount loaned.
Iron triangle
when agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees develop close ties and work together to implement programs
Issue network
Temporary networks that form as a result of an issue, includes interest groups, congressional committees, and executive agencies
Lame duck
when an elected official continues in office during the period between an election defeat and a successor's assumption of office.
Line item veto
power of the president to veto specific previsions in a bill, Congress has tried to give this power to Congress but the Supreme Court struck it down.
Litmus test
A questioning of a candidate for the judiciary or other offices, to determine if the candidate is qualified
Mandatory spending
Spending that is required by existing law
Monetary policy
The process by which the supply of money in a country is controlled, usually by using interest rates
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
The presidential agency that coordinates agency budgeting requests and advises the President on budget matters
Pardon
The president's power to set free people accused of crimes
Patronage
A method of hiring government employees by rewarding faithful party workers and followers with jobs. Also known as the 'spoils' system.
Pocket Veto
The failure of a president to sign and return a bill fewer than ten days before Congress adjourns.
Pork barrel spending
Appropriation of money towards projects that will only benefit a politician's district
Recession
A period of general economic decline
Red Tape
A time-consuming procedure required to gain bureaucratic approval
Schedule C Job
A control program that selects from a job queue the next job to be processed.
Surplus
The positive balance that occurs when revenues exceed expenditures.
Treaty
A formal agreement between two or more countries. The president has the power to make treaties but the Senate must pass them.
Veto
An executive's nullification of a bill passed by a legislature.
War Powers Resolution
A law passed by Congress in 1973 that stated that the President could send troops only with a congressional declaration of war, a law passed by congress allowing him to do so, or a national emergency.
White House staff
Advisers of the president within the Executive Office of the President