The visible frequencies of energy that humans perceive as light and colors, as in a rainbow.
the wave bands of solar energy that correspond to visible frequencies. From longest to shortest wave length, spectral colors are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet, as seen in a rainbow.
A compound that is the coloring agent for apint, ink, crayons, chalk. Nonsoluble and held to surface with a resin binder.
Subtractive color theory
The phenomenon in which the frequencies of light striking an object are absorbed, or 'subtracted' except for the frequencies corresponding to the colors with which the object is pigmented. the frequencies not absorbed are reflected, and we perceive them as colors.
Subtractive color mixing or optical color mixing
The phenomenon in which the frequencies of colors placed very near one another are blended. Subtractive color mixing is what enables us to perceive an almost infinite range of colors beyond the spectral colors.
Inability to distinguish value (light and dark) of pairs of complements. Red and green, most common
Metamerism or metameric effect
A phenomenon in which colors appear different under different lighting due to the spectral energy distribution in the materials
Spectral energy distribution factors
The inherent color characteristics of an object or material due to the type and amount of dyes or pigments. This can cause the object or material to appear as different colors under different kinds of light; also describes the color of the light source.
Theories of how color is made, what it's made of, how nature uses it, how people use it, etc.
M.E. Chevreul and his book, The principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colors
French chemist who was head of dyestuffs at Gobelin Tapestry Works near Paris. Researched and published theories that were forerunners to the Standard Color wheel theory.
Standard color wheel theory or palette theory
Based on 3 primary colors, red yellow and blue, and variations based on mixing these, plus black and white. Arranged in a circle with secondary/tertiary colors between the primary ones.
Six hues on standard wheel produced with primary and secondary mixed together. Also know as tertiary
Analogous color scheme
Using colors next to each other on the standard wheel. Contains 3-6 adjacent colors
Variation of direct complementary scheme - four colors that are equally spaced on wheel
Munsell theory, Albert H. Munsell and his book, Color Notation
American colorist. System based on hue, value, and chroma notation.
Normal value or natural saturation point
amount of naturally occuring white/black value in a pure hue.
Wilhelm Oswald theory and his book The Color Primer
Won Nobel Prize for chem and turned his research to color. Made a system for analyzing color based on white/black additions.
Johannes Itten and his books, The Art of Color and The Elements of Color
Colorist who taught at Bauhaus in Germany and Yale.
Josef Albers and his book Interaction of Color
Famous for studies of simultaneous and successive contrast. Experimented with the optics of color.
addition of small amount of one hue to another, rendering the latter slighly warm or cool.
When using small samples, you won't get the effect you will when you have a whole room that color. A sample might help, though.
A theory of harmonizing color so that combined hues are appealing for a long people of time. Based on ratios and proportions of nature.
Bold or high-contrast colors
Pure, bright, or intense colors of any hue. Often in retail design and fast-food places. Sense of hurrying is seen.
The Law of Chromatic Distribution
"The more neutralized colors of the scheme are found in the largest areas, and the smaller the area, the brighter or more intense the chroma becomes" Backgrounds should use neutrals.
Created by mixing black and white. Warm grays - welcome, invite. Cool grays - cold, uninviting.
Black and off-blacks
Sharpen and adds richness to other colors places near it. Can produce feelings of depression in some.
Color placement or juxtaposition
Putting colors close together will cause colors to affect each other.
Have predominantly high value. Airy, carefree feeling occurs. Can seem romantic and less connected to the earth.
Colors at their normal value/natural saturation point. Give a sense of normality and calm. Safe, easy to live with.
Focus on dark/low values. Can produce a stable, anchored, ponderous, or historic effect. An intellectual or research/reading mode or even a cavelike coziness or theatrical setting.
Light and dark values are used and give a sharp contract. Look professional and no-nonsense.
Value distribution based on nature
Placing of values in the general pattern seen in naturn. Dark colors on bottom, midtones in middle.
Valuable tool for designers to fulfill the needs of the users. Both physiological and cultural.
Common color associations for red, orange, yellow, green, blue and purple or violet
Table 4.2; red: danger, love, wealth; orange: warmth, celebration, fame; yellow: optimism, sunshine, status, wisdom, cleanliness; green: nature, calmness, solidity, youthfulness; blue: loyalty, honesty, compassion, tentativeness; purple: imagination, royalty, depth, freshness, flowers, kindness
Color mood groups: light value, bright; light and dull; dark and dull; dark and bright
light/bright: spontaneity, happiness, spring; light/dull: calm, relaxation, summer; dark/dull: serious, profound, fall; dark/bright: jewel tones, richness, strength, winter
Afterimage or simultaneous contrast
Most evident in pairs of intense, high-chroma complementary colors of equal value placed in juxtaposition. Can cause headaches.
Color in residential interiors
Color is a good way to change the look without spending a lot of money. Can be made to fit individual needs.
Hospitality facilities colors
Dictated by culture/climate. Different between lobbies and rooms. In warm climates, cool colors are used.
Office interior colors
Sophisticated in terms of equipment and furniture. Neutralized hues and complex neutrals are considered most professional.