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100 terms

HSPA Tutorial

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Acronym
word formed from initials
Allegory
a short moral story (often with animal characters)
Alliteration
repetition of initial consonant sounds
Euphemism
substitution of an inoffensive term for one that is offensive
Hyperbole
extreme exaggeration
Understatement
Deliberately short change something
mood
Feeling of a story
theme
thesis or message
sarcasm
harsh, cutting language or tone intended to ridicule
simile
comparison using "like" or "as"
metaphor
a comparison without using like or as
irony
a contrast between expectation and reality
Idiom
Language specific to a certain people
Symbolism
When a thing represents more than just itself
Foreshadowing
the use of hints and clues to suggest what will happen later in a plot
Personification
the act of attributing human characteristics to abstract ideas etc.
Onomatopeia
words that imitate sounds
Propaganda
information designed to influence opinion
Oxymoron
conjoining contradictory terms (as in 'deafening silence')
Rhetorical Question
a question asked for an effect, not actually requiring an answer
elaboration
to express at greater length
inferences
deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true
sarcasm
sneering, sly, jesting, mocking of a person, situation, or thing
opinion
beliefs or feelings from personal experience
propraganda
deliberate spreading of information, rumor
rhetorical question
question to which no answer is expected
bias
one-sided
supporting details
details that add to or support the central idea
relevant examples
pretaining to the situation
exaggerate
embellish
fact
can be proven
synthesize
blending facts and ideas from multiple sources
point of view
expression of belief/feeling about a subject
rhetorical question
question to which no answer is expected
exaggeration
embellish
elaboration
to express at greater length
synthesize
blending facts and ideas from multiple sources
supporting details
details that add to or support the central idea
penurious
penny-pinching; excessively thrifty; ungenerous
glutton
someone who eats too much
machiavellian
crafty; double-dealing
ludicrous
completely devoid of wisdom or good sense
parsimonious
stingy, miserly; meager, poor, small
bliss
a state of extreme happiness
plight
a situation from which extrication is difficult especially an unpleasant or trying one
fidelity
the quality of being faithful
exuberant
joyously unrestrained
didactic
intended to teach or instruct
nefarious
extremely wicked
vacuous
lacking ideas or intelligence
obstreperous
boisterously and noisily aggressive
reticent
inclined to keep silent; reserved
laconic
short, concise
superfluous
more than is needed, desired, or required
malevolent
wishing or appearing to wish evil to others
euphony
any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds
benevolent
generous in providing aid to others
misanthrope
someone who dislikes people in general
persuasion
presentation of ideas to convince and compel people to take action
argument
a topic of debate that generates discussion and thinking
claim/assertion/proposition/thesis
that which the author wants the reader to accept as true or reasonable
subclaim
a supplementary point
supporting evidence
material used to support/explain/embellish an opinion or explanation
rebuttal/counterargument
acknowledging an opponent's reasonable arguments
refutation
prove wrong those arguments not reasonable
fact
information that can be proven objectively to be true
statistic
an interpretation of numerical data
interview/survey/questionnaire
first hand information from a primary source
experience/example
information from personal experience representative of a general pattern
opinion
personal interpretation of facts
comparison/allusion/analogy
information comparing easily accepted examples with unfamiliar subjects
authority/expertise
information from an expert on a given subject
causal relationship
information asserted as a result from another event
Ethos (ethical)
appeal to credibility of author
Pathos (emotional)
appeal to emotions
Logos (logical)
appeal to reason
inductive reasoning
based on a number of examples from which a conclusion is drawn- specific to general
deductive reasoning
based on a general principle applied to a specific case- originated from inductive
elaboration
Giving a lot of details.
simile
A comparison between two things using LIKE or AS. (ex. The house was as large as a castle.)
symbolism
The representation of ideas using something to stand for something else (ex. The author may use a rose as a symbol of beauty, or a snake as a symbol of evil)
speculate
To think or talk about the possible causes or effects of something without knowing all the facts or details.
controversial
Causing a lot of disagreement because lots of people have strong opinions about the subject.
rhetorical
A question that is asked only for effect or to make a statement, not to get an answer (ex. How much longer will we put up with this injustice?)
foreshadowing
The hint or suggestion of things to come. (ex. Gray clouds at the beginning of a story may foreshadow a storm later.)
chronological
Arranging information in the order in which it occurred (ex. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, etc.)
oxymoron
A combination of two contradictory words (ex. Deafening silence, A definite possibility, pretty ugly)
tone
The attitude or viewpoint that an author shows toward the subject (ex. Serious, sympathetic, optimistic, or angry)
allegory
Showing ideas or moral principles through symbolic characters, events or objects (ex. Aesop's fables)
hyperbole
Overstatement or exaggeration for the purpose of emphasis (ex. Her ears were so sharp she could hear dogs bark in the next county.)
satire
Writing that uses humor, irony or wit to attack or make fun of something, such as people's faults
personification
Giving human characteristics to objects, ideas, or animals (ex. The sun smiled down on them.)
alliteration
The repetition of the first sound in words (ex. swift, silent serpent)
expository
exposes the truth or meaning of something
schema
what you already know about something from personal experience
text to text
a connection that you create between something you are reading and something that you have already read, such as a book, film, song, poem, etc.
text to world
a connection that you create between something you are reading and a world event, social issue, or something of historical significance
text to self
a connection that you create between something you are reading and a personal experience that shares something in common with the text
Thesis Statement
states a writer's position on a topic
Plan of Development
list of reasons that support a writer's position on a topic; typically follows the thesis statement at the end of the introduction