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Chapter 1: New World Beginnings

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Aztec
A Nahuatl people who established an empire in Mexico that was overthrown by Cortes in 1519
Anasazis
People of the four corners region who created an irrigation system and built stone homes on the sides of cliffs called Adobes.
Bartholomeu Diaz
In 1487, he was the first Portugese Explorer to sail around the southern tip of Africa (The Cape of Hope), which established a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia.
Bartolome de Las Casas
A Spanish missionary of southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting American indian peoples from exploitation and opposed the encomienda system.
black legend
Belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas, while doing nothing good for the native american people.
Cahokia
Important Mississippian culture site, near present-day East St. Louis, Illinois
Canadian Shield
Probably the first part of the North American landmass to emerge above sea level
caravel
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.
cartography
the making or study of maps or charts
Chaco Canyon
Urban center established by Anasazi.
Christian Crusaders
Indirectly responsible for discovery of Americas by develping a taste for the goods of Asia
Christopher Cloumbus
Italian explorer who discovered America in 1492, in an attempt to find a route to Asia for Spain.
conquistador
Spanish soldiers who sought riches and power for themselves, and wealth and glory for Spain, in the conquest of the Americas
ecosystem
system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their environment.
encomienda
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
Father Junipero Serra
Spanish missionary who founded a chain of 21 missions along the California coast
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world.
Ferdinand and Isabella
King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile married in 1469 to bring the kingdoms of Spain together to complete the reconquest of Spain from the Muslims.
Francisco Pizzarro
Spanish explorer who led the conquest of the Inca Empire of Peru in 1531-1533.
Francisco Coronado
leader of Spanish expedition into northern frontier region of New Spain in search of mythical cities of gold.
Great Ice Age
Supposedly occurred 35000 years ago; Exposing a land bridge between Alaska & Siberia. Possibly Allowing people to migrate to America.
Hernan Cortez
Spanish explorer who conquered the Native American civilization of the Aztecs in 1519 in what is now Mexico.
Hiawatha
Indian leader who called together five Native American tribes, forming the Iroquis Confederacy around 1570.
Incas
Ancient civilization that was located in the Andes in Peru. Destroyed in 1536 by spanish conquistador.
Indirect Discoverers
Norse Men (sailed), Christian Crusaders (desired route to Asia) , Muslim middlemen (high prices)
Iroquois Confederacy
A powerful group of Native Americans in the eastern part of the U.S. made up of five nations: the Mohawk, Seneca, CAyuga, Onondaga, and Oneiga
Jacques Cartier
French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France (1491-1557)
Jaun Ponce de Leon
Spanish explorer who discovered and named Florida while looking for the fountain of youth.
John Cabot
Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland
Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo
Portugese explorer who explored the California coast in 1542 for spain but failed to find San Francisco Bay or anything else of interest.
maize
Crop upon which the Inca and Aztec agricultural practices were based
Malinche
Native woman who helped translate for Cortes
Malinchista
word for traitor in Mexican, derived from the name of Cortés' translator
Marco Polo
Italian merchant and traveler whose accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
matrilinear
form of society in which family line, power, and wealth are passed primarily through the female side
Mayas
The Indians of one of the most advanced early civilizations of the Western Hemisphere; made their home in Central America.
mestizo
person of mixed American Indian and European ancestry
middlmen
people who acted as go-betweens for other groups (traders). Muslims between Europe and Asia
nation-state
region with a single goverment and a united group of people
Pope's Rebeliion
Rebellion of the native people against the Spanish in the Spanish city of Sante Fe.
Portuguese Sailors
sailed southward along the coast of africa for years trading with natives for gold, ivory, and eventually for slaves.
Renaissance
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
Robert de Lasalle
First European to sail down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. Claimed areas such as the Mississippi, St. Lawrence, and Ohio Rivers for France. Also explored the Great Lakes.
European diseases
Small pox, malaria, yellow fever and other european diseases spred to the native population of America.
St. Augustine, Florida
The first permanent European settlement in the present-day United States. Settled by the Spanish in 1565.
Tenochitlan
Aztec capital that built in the center of lake texcoco
Three sister farming
system of agriculture that grew beans on corn and used squash to cover the planting mounds to retain the soil's moisture
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494 Treaty created by the pope, in which Spain and Portugal agreed to divide lands of the Western Hemisphere between them
Vasco de Gamma
Portuguese explorer who sailed from Europe to India, bringing back jewels.
Vaco Nunez Balboa
Spanish explorer who led an expedition across the Isthmus of Panama, discovering the Pacific Ocean in 1513.
Montezuma
Powerful Aztec monarch who fell to Spanish conquerors
Hernando De Soto
Spanish explorer who discovered and claimed the Mississippi River for Spain