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ServSafe Ch. 2
Terms in this set (17)
The Big 6
1. Typhoidal Salmonella (bacteria)
2. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (bateria)
3. E. Coli (bacteria)
4. Shigella (bacteria)
5. Hepatitis A (virus)
6. Norovirus (virus)
Single celled living microorganism that can spoil food and cause food borne illness
DETECTION: Cannot be seen, smelled, or tasted
GROWTH: Very quickly in correct conditions
TOXIN PRODUCTION: Some bacteria can produce toxins in food as they grow and die. Cooking may not destroy these toxins.
PREVENTION: CONTROL TIME & TEMPERATURE
What Bacteria Need to Grow (FAT TOM)
F - Food
A - Acidity
T - Temperature
O - Oxygen
M - Moisture
Bacteria - Acidity
Bacteria grow best in food that contains little or no acid.
Examples of perfect foods:
-Bread (pH 5-6)
-Raw chicken (pH 5.5-6)
-Cantaloupe (pH 6.1-6.5)
-Milk (pH 6.4-6.8)
-Cooked corn (pH 7.3-7.6)
Temperature Danger Zone (and temperature for bacteria growth)
Temperature danger zone: 41-135
Bacteria grow most rapidly: 70-125
Bacteria - Moisture
Bacteria grow best in foods with high levels of moisture.
Water activity of 0.85 or higher
Bacterial Growth (4 Stages)
1. LAG: adjustment period. Keep refrigerated to keep in lag phase
2. LOG: Exponential reproduction
3. STATIONARY PHASE: Bacteria continue to grow until conditions become unfavorable.
4. DEATH PHASE: When dying bacteria outnumber growing bacteria, population declines.
To keep from dying when they lack certain nutrients, certain bacteria change into spores.
-Often found in dirt
-Can resist heat and survive cooking temperatures
-Can change back into form that grows
-Storing food at correct temperature
-Cooling food correctly
-The smallest of the microbial food contaminants
LOCATION: carried by people and animals. Require living host. Do not grow in food but can be transferred through food.
SOURCES: food, water, contaminated surfaces.
PREVENTION: HYGIENE and prohibit ill food handlers from working.
LOCATION: require host to live
SOURCE: seafood, wild game, and food processed with contaminated water (i.e. produce)
-Purchase from approved suppliers
-Cook food to minimum internal temperatures
-Raw fish must be flash frozen correctly
-Pathogens that only sometimes make people sick.
-Mostly spoil food.
-Found in air, dirt, plants, water, and some food.
EFFECTS: spoil food and sometimes cause illness.
TOXINS: some molds produce toxins, such as aflatoxins.
GRWOTH: mold grows under almost any condition. Particularly well in acidic food with low water activity (ex. jams, jellies, and cured, salty meat- ham, bacon, salami)
TEMPERATURE: cold/freezing temperatures may slow growth, but will not kill mold.
PREVENTION: throw out all moldy food unless its naturally recurring. Cut at least 1" around mold areas of foods (cheeses, salami, firm fruits and veggies)
SIGNS OF SPOILAGE: yeasts can spoil foods quickly. Can include smell or taste of alcohol. Yeast itself may look like a white or pink discoloration or slime. It may also bubble.
GROWTH: grows well in acidic food with little moisture (ex. jellies, jams, syrup, honey, fruit or fruit juice)
PREVENTION: throw out any food that has been spoiled by yeast.
Naturally occur in certain plants, mushrooms, and sea food. Many look like allergic reactions.
1. Fish toxins
-Systematic toxins (natural part of the fish)
-Puffer fish (need license to prep), moray eels, and freshwater minnows
-Other toxins made by pathogens on the fish.
2. Shellfish toxins
-Can be contaminated when they eat algae that have a toxin.
Occur when toxic mushrooms are mistaken for edible ones.
PREVENTION: approved suppliers
-Usually happen because operation has purchased from unapproved source (ex. fools parsley, wild turnips).
-Can also occur when some plants are not cooked correctly (ex. undercooked kidney beans).
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
ServSafe Ch. 2: Bacteria, Viruses, Parasites, and…
ServSafe Chapter 2
ServSafe Ch. 1
ServSafe Ch. 3
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