Psychology's Key Contributors
Terms in this set (54)
neo-Freudian. what we think we lack determines what we will become in life. character is formed by the unique interplay between two opposing forces: a need for power, or personal aggrandizement; and a need for 'social feeling' and togetherness. the hardest thing for human beings to do is to know themselves and to change themselves.
assessed attachment with the Strange Situation technique where a child is brought into an unfamiliar room that contains toys, then is allowed to play with the mother present. then, an unfamiliar woman enters, talks to the mother, then approaches the child, then a brief separation, where the mother leaves the child alone with the stranger. after a few minutes, the mother enters and the stranger leaves. three categories of reactions upon reunion. "Securely Attached": plays with toys, and may talk to the stranger with mother present, minor distress when mother leaves, and greets her with enthusiasm. "Anxious Resistant": don't play, even with mother present, become upset when she leaves, and are ambivalent upon return, crying and running to be picked up, but then kicking and struggling to get down. "Anxious Avoidant": distant and aloof while mother is present, and, although they sometimes search for her in her absence, they typically snub her upon reunion. CONCLUSION: the child's pattern of attachment can remain stable only if the major features of his environment also do.
if the subject was the only one with a certain answer in a group, it is very unlikely that he will stick to his guns - he will just conform to what the group says because it is the entire group vs. him, so it causes him to doubt and question himself. it was seen as better to go against one's beliefs if one was being judged as perhaps crazy, and to minimize the conflict. if there is even one other person that does not agree with the majority, he is much more likely to stick to his guns because the uniformity is broken.
After acquiring a memory, the memory is stored before it can be retrieved. There are two models for how to brain stores memories. The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model says that incoming information is first stored in short-term memory. It is transferred to long-term memory after it has been rehearsed many times. If no rehearsal occurs, the memory is displaced or decays ("use it or lose it").
aggression study with bobo the doll. he postulated social learning theory, which suggests that children learn social behavior through observation.
social cognitive. emphasizes the role we play as agents in fashioning our own lives. we observe relationships between certain actions and their real world consequences, and based on these observations, we develop a set of internalized outcome expectations, which then govern our actions. we gradually become aware of ourselves as agents able to produce certain outcomes, marking the emergence of a "self", one with a sense of self-efficacy. once these elements are in place, our actions depend increasingly on a totally internalized system of self rewards/punishments, our values and moral sensibilities - and less on our immediate environments. this makes behavior more consistent than if we are guided only by exigencies of the moment. this consistency is what we know as personality.
postulated three types of parenting:
-authoritarian (low warmth + high demand)
-authoritative (high warmth + high demand)
-permissive (high warmth + low demand)
Maccoby + Martin added "uninvolved" (low warmth + low demand)
cognitive psychiatrist - the father of cognitive therapy, mainly for depression. he made several scales to measure depression/hopelessness in children and adults.
the originator of intelligence tests and was primarily interested in identifying children who would benefit from remedial education. He believed intelligence is a general attribute which manifests itself different forms of cognitive function. He tested intelligence based on if the subject could do well on all parts of a multi-task test.
He believed that intelligence was a general attribute that manifested itself in many different spheres of cognitive functioning, he also originated intelligence tests
man after whom the Broca's area of the brain was named. it is located in the frontal part of the left hemisphere of the brain. It is associated with the motor control for speech, damage to which can cause nonfluent aphasia.
Mary Whiton Calkins
basically the first female psychologist. she was denied a PhD because they didn't give them to women. other than that, nothing significant.
Studied Language and how it relates to thinking. He believed humans were the only beings capable of genuine language. He also came up with his theory of universal grammar, which states that the ability to be grammatical is innate in humans.
associated with the five factor model of personality - the big five traits. argued that personality affects behavior more than situationalism.
Darwin viewed variation from a biological and evolutionary perspective and realized that without variation, there was no way for a species to evolve. Variation, was, therefore a very good thing in Darwin's eyes, because inherited traits through variation would lead to evolutionary advantage.
created the first generations of american mental asylums
curve of forgetting. demonstrated the rate at which he forgot a list of nonsense words he had previously memorized. He tested himself again at various time intervals and plotted the results. Ultimately, he determined that the steepest loss of information occurs soon after the learning is completed, with lesser losses at later time intervals.
spacing effect: the more time that passes between rehearsals of acquired knowledge, the more likely the subject is to forget the information.
cognitive psychologist who came up with Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy - a combination of behavioral and cognitive therapies to address maladaptive thinking.
developed the concept of psychosocial development through which identity forms in 8 stages from birth to later years. After each stage, an identity crisis occurs that determines who we are. The identity crisis leads us to either choosing growth or stagnation.
1. Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1) - as a baby, whether or not your needs are met determines if you are generally able to trust the world or not
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3) - conflict between child's and parent's wants. if she explores: autonomy, if shut down: independence is bad and shameful
3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5) - if parents encourage the initiative to use her cognitive/social skills to meet challenges at this age: ability to plan + initiate new things. if discouraged: inability/guilt to future plan
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (5-12) - if she directs her energy into working at/completing tasks, she will develop feelings of industry, but if she struggles, then she may feel inferior/incompetent
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-20) - if she can transition from carefree, irresponsible teenager, to purposeful adulthood, she'll develop confidence/positive identity. if not: role confusion, low self-esteem, and becoming socially withdrawn
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (20-40) - relationships with intimacy are caring, whereas without it, one feels isolated: impersonal relations
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (40-65) - generativity is created through raising our own children or others, but a lack of involvement in younger lives leads to stagnation: having done nothing for the younger generation
8. Integrity vs. Despair (65-death) - reflecting on life. feeling good about what we accomplished yields integrity, whereas if we only see a series of crises, problems, and bad experiences, we will have despair.
Known as the "founder of psychophysics," he argued that sensations and the stimuli that produce them belong to two totally different realms: the mental world and the physical world.
did an experiment testing cognitive dissonance with participants who were either well or poorly paid to lie about a boring task. those who were well paid experienced more cognitive dissonance.
-developed psychoanalysis with id, ego, superego
-came up with hysteria (now called conversion disorder)
-free association + resistance
-psychosexual stages of development
-everything is suppressed sexual feelings from childhood
On Picturelike Aspects of Visual Imagery. the earliest method of studying mental imagery was introspection. where each of us could look within to observe then report on the contents of our thoughts. with this, each of us could examine our own mental images, and in that way, we could begin the endeavor of describing what these images are like, what information they contain, and so on.
Also tried to see if heredity plays an important role in human traits (both mental and physical) . To prove this he looked at similarities between different family members. Since children were never an exact copy of one of the parents Galton set out to create a way to mathematically express the similarities between family members. He developed a measurement called the correlation coefficient (symbolized by the letter "r"). The correlation is a number that lies between -1 and 1. If r is zero, then there is no correlation, if r is one it means that there is a very strong positive correlation and if r is -1 it means there is a very negative correlation.
came up with the Garcia effect which is the development of taste aversion.
expanded the idea of intelligence with the concept of "multiple intelligences." He believed that some people can be especially gifted or talented in some areas but not in others. For example, someone might be especially talented in music, but not at languages. Evidence for Gardner's theory comes from a study of patients who had brain lesions. In this study the patient's lesions debilitated some of their abilities, while other abilities were spared. Additional evidence for his theory came from the study of individuals with savant syndrome, in which the person is mentally retarded yet exhibits an extraordinary talent. For example, some individuals with this syndrome have an extraordinary ability to remember dates, but cannot do a simple math problem.
one of the leading researchers in cognitive neuroscience, the study of the neural basis of mind.
an American psychologist who studied young women and men at the age of puberty. She asserted that girls are most confident at age 11, and then "go underground" by age 16 by falling into insecurity. She heads the theory that girls should first be introduced to work at age 11, since this is the age they are most confident. Gilligan claims that boys undergo a similar struggle when introduced to masculine ideals at age 4.
G. Stanley Hall
studied childhood development and evolutionary theory. Hall was the first president of the American Psychological Association and the first president of Clark University.
conducted studies with rhesus monkeys to support Bowlby's theory. he raised them without mothers, but with two figures: a wire one with working nipples that produced milk, and a soft cloth one that didn't produce milk. monkeys would spend more time with the soft figure, especially in the event of a fear evoking stimulus. this is where he derived his comfort contact theory.
became famous in the 1950s for his research on hypnosis, especially with regard to pain control. he said that people could relieve themselves of pain through hypnosis.
She is regarded as the first feminist psychoanalyst. Her overarching goal was to make the process of analysis sufficiently understandable so that people could analyze themselves and in that way encouraged the self-help movement. She identified three basic neurotic trends: moving toward people, moving against people and moving away from people. Moving forward people stemmed from feelings of isolation or fear in childhood- resulted in adults who were needy for love. Moving against people stemmed from a hostile family environment in childhood- resulted in adults who had a large mistrust for anyone else. Moving away from people stemmed from a childhood in which they felt smothered- resulted in adults who wish for solitude, crave privacy and independence and may dislike serious relationships. She defined being neurotic as when one's compulsions become controlling and ultimately she believed that people could be helped by acknowledging their problems in the here and now and dealing with them as opposed to blaming it on repressed childhood memories. (You can be cured!). She was also the founder of womb envy and the vicious circle.
a Canadian neurophysiologist noted for his studies of the structure and function of the visual cortex. He was co-recipient with Torsten Wiesel of the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (shared with Roger W. Sperry), for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system.
an American sexologist, best known as the junior member of the Masters and Johnson sexuality research team. Along with William H. Masters, she pioneered research into the nature of human sexual response and the diagnosis and treatment of sexual dysfunctions and disorders from 1957 until the 1990s.
Mary Clover Jones
was Watson's partner in fear conditioning. She maintained that fear could be unlearned.
argued that instead there is a collective unconscious among people as well as an individual unconscious. This collective unconscious has archetypes that individual all understand. Examples of these archetypes are schema, the mother, and religious icons. He also thought that individuation was possible through work with a mandala. Individuation is a psychological process of integrating the opposites including the conscious with the unconscious while still maintaining their relative autonomy, necessary for a person to become whole.
With Amos Tversky and others, Kahneman established a cognitive basis for common human errors which arise from heuristics and biases
research on the physiological basis of memory storage in neurons. He shared the prize with Arvid Carlsson and Paul Greengard.
developed the six stages of morality
Level 1 - Preconventional Morality. Level 2 - Conventional. Level 3 - Post-Conventional. each level has two stages.
Stage 1 - obedience and punishment orientation
2 - individualism and exchange
3 - good interpersonal relationships
4 - maintaining the social order
5 - social contract and individual rights
6 - universal principles
believed there was insight in chimpanzees, so he had them in an environment in which they had to obtain a treat that was out of their reach. they had to think of ways to use tools in their environment and be able to replicate these results in different situations. he learned that chimps do have insight on certain problems, and can learn to tackle the conceptual instead of just the perceptual.
studied phrasing and how leading questions can affect memory. when showing eye-witnesses a car crash video, saying "did you see THE tail light" was a leading question because THE indicated that it exists, and you're stupid for not seeing it. whereas when asked "did you see A tail light" it was not a leading question, because its existence was only a possibility. memory is way too easy to manipulate is what she concludes.
an ethologist who studied imprinting. he manipulated newborn ducklings to follow him.
a humanistic psychologist who created the hierarchy of needs, where self actualization is at the top, and basic needs - physiological needs - are at the bottom. He created this to counter the trait theory, situationalist, and psychodynamic approaches, which all focus on labeling or figuring out what is wrong with the subject. people's actions are not solely motivated by escaping negative stimulus; we sometimes seek things for their own sake.
Aesthetic needs: symmetry, order, beauty
Cognitive needs: knowledge, understanding, novelty
Esteem needs: competence, approval, recognition
Belongingness and love needs: affiliation, acceptance
Safety needs: comfort, security, freedom from fear
Physiological needs: food, water, oxygen
an American gynecologist, best known as the senior member of the Masters and Johnson sexuality research team. Along with Virginia Eshelman Johnson, he pioneered research into the nature of human sexual response and the diagnosis and treatment of sexual dysfunctions and disorders from 1957 until the 1990s
a personality psychologist at the National Institute of Aging. He is associated with the Five Factor Theory of personality. He has spent his career studying the stability of personality across age and culture. Along with Paul Costa, he is a co-author of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory.
the electrical shock with the doctor and learner studies to observe the effects of obedience, and the power of the situation.
George A. Miller
his magic number says that working memory capacity is seven items (give or take one or two more items). This means that when people hear a list of objects and must repeat them back in order, most are only able to repeat back seven.
Conditioned dogs to salivate when they heard a bell through connecting the conditioned stimulus (tone) to the unconditioned stimulus (food) and thus the unconditioned response (salivation). He was extremely successful in this conditioning, and even conditioned the dogs to salivate after seeing a black square because he conducted second order conditioning to correlate the square and the tone. Pavlov proposed distinction between unconditioned and conditioned reflexes to explain his findings and that every unconditioned reflex is based on a hardwired connection between an US and an UR.
a developmental psychologist who theorized the four stages of development that are the foundation for all proceeding developmental research.
Stage 1: Sensorimotor stage- the first two years after birth, the infants' thinking is limited to the sensations being experienced and the objects being acted upon so their behavior is organized around its sensory or motor effects
Stage 2: Preoperational stage - the preschool years (2-7), child is able to make remarkable gains in memory, language development, and the ability to think symbolically but can not yet think from another person's viewpoint
Stage 3: Concrete Operational stage- school-age child (7-11), child begin to think more logically with mental operations of adult logic but these operations could only be applied to concrete objects so they tend to struggle with abstract concept
Stage 4: Formal Operational stage - 11 and up, adolescents are now able to apply mental operations to more abstract or hypothetical situations and can now reason systematically about ideas that are not present, there is an increase in the ability to use deductive reasoning and the understanding of abstract ideas
-assimilation and accommodation regarding schemas
opposes Chomsky. language is a unit of culture, and so long as two people can communicate with each other, it can be considered a language.
we're saying more than just what we're saying; we are facilitating a relationship.
made a model of classical conditioning in which the animal is theorized to learn from the discrepancy between what is expected to happen and what actually happens. This is a trial-level model in which each stimulus is either present or not present at some point in the trial. The prediction of the unconditioned stimulus for a trial can be represented as the sum of all the associative strengths for the conditioned stimuli present during the trial. This is the feature of the model that represents a major advance over previous models, and allowed a straightforward explanation of important experimental phenomena such as blocking.
a humanist psychologist who claimed that a crucial facet of the subjective experience is the self-concept, which develops in early childhood, and comes to include one's sense of oneself - the "I" - as an agent who takes actions and makes decisions. also includes one's sense of oneself as a kind of object - the "me" - that is seen, thought about, like or disliked.
self-concept:he organized consistent conceptual gestalt composed of perceptions of the characteristics of 'I' or 'me' and the perceptions of the relationships of the 'I' or 'me' to others and to various aspects of life, together with the values attached to these perceptions. It is a gestalt which is available to awareness though not necessarily in awareness. It is a fluid and changing gestalt, a process, but at any given moment it is a specific entity.
Subjectively experienced emotion is the result of an evaluation process where the participant interprets his own bodily reaction in the light of the total situation. Conception of emotion must include two elements: bodily arousal and cognitive appraisal of the circumstances attending that arousal. The key to this reasoning is the amygdala, and patients with damage to the amygdala do not acquire conditioned fear responses. STIMULUS -> PHYSICAL RESPONSE -> REASONING -> EMOTION
-social cognitive. being prone to depression is correlated with a particular attributional style - a tendency to attribute unfortunate events to causes that are internal, global, and stable. thus, a person who is prone to depression is likely to attribute life events to causes related to something within him that applies to many other situations and will continue indefinitely.
-postulated learned helplessness and tested on dogs by putting them in a shock box where they would be unable or able to escape the shock. dogs who were unable to, and were afterwards given the opportunity thought that they were still unable to avoid the shock, and did not even try to avoid it. Seligman postulates that depressed patients believe that their efforts are uniformly futile, and therefore don't try to improve their situations.
postulated learned helplessness and tested on dogs by putting them in a shock box where they would be unable or able to escape the shock. dogs who were unable to, and were afterwards given the opportunity thought that they were still unable to avoid the shock, and did not even try to avoid it. Seligman postulates that depressed patients believe that their efforts are uniformly futile, and therefore don't try to improve their situations.
-also created the two dimensional axis of personality - extroversion vs. neuroticism
-developed the Atkinson-Shiffron model of short term memory. Incoming memory gets stored, and must be continuously rehearsed to enter longer term memory storage. if it is not rehearsed enough, then displacement, decay, and eventually forgetting will occur.
-On subroutines. these are actions that we do on autopilot. we're not really aware of them happening. action without awareness.
-On Prototype Theory of Meaning. we carry a mental prototype for each of our concepts - prototype of bird, chair, etc. these are generally derived from our experiences. like a mental average.
-pigeon box guy. his theory required that the reactions be emitted from within; voluntary reactions. these are operants, as defined in operant conditioning(acting on the environment to bring about change that leads to some consequence)
-extreme behaviorist - all behavior is observable and has nothing to do with the cognitive process.
-his students studied instinctive drift