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Gen Med Chapter 7
Terms in this set (102)
The upper respiratory tract is mainly responsible for:
warming, humidifying, and filtering the air as it reaches the lower respiratory tract.
tracheobronchial tree is tubular and supported via ________ rings
The right lung has ____ lobes whereas the left ling has ______ lobes.
the respiratory system is involved in the exchange of ____ from the atmosphere and ____ in the blood.
oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2)
what are the two distinct but simultaneous steps in respiration?
ventilation and oxygenation
exchange of gases
when the volume of the lung's' changes, the pressure of the air in the lung's changes in accordance to
Boyle's Law states that:
pressure is inversely proportional to the volume.
(T/F) During inspiration, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract and the circumference of the thorax expands, increasing the size of the thoracic cavity.
Abdominal, sternocleidomastoid and scalnes are
accessory inspiration muscles
when the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax, _____ occurs
normal respiration is unlabored at
12 to 20 breaths/min
O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the alveoli by
the pressure of a gas if the gas were in the same volume and temperature itself is
(T/F) Carbon dioxide moves into the alveoli because the pCO2 in the capillaries is greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
(T/F) High pH stimulates the breathing center in the MO, which increases ventilation rate and depth to expel the acidic waste product to rebalance the pH.
(F) Low pH
pressure sensitive and located in the aorta and carotid arteries.
what kind of receptors detect changes in blood pressure?
Chemoreceptors in the same area detect _____ in blood O2 levels.
Both Baroreceptors and chemoreceptors act to
increase ventilation to maintain blood O2 concentrations
what type of receptors in the intercostal muscles cause inspiration to stop and expiration to begin?
neural control of breathing come from ________ nerve and arises from which cervical roots?
phrenic nerve; C3,C4, anc C5
Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath that can occur from decrease in blood O2 levels, airway obstruction, metabolic imbalances, anxiety, cardiac diisease and pulmonary can be described as:
reflex contraction of the diaphragm that forces air from the lungs to expel an airway irritation.
Coughing up blood or blood-stained sputum is known as
Bluish tint to lips, face, mucous membranes, and fingernail that occurs when arterial blood decreased below 85% is known as
Individuals with underlying CHF and shortness of breath while lying down may have:
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
high-pitched whistling sound when air moves through a narrow or constricted airway. More common in exhalation, and a common sign of asthma. Wheezing in both inhalation and exhalation suggest a more serious airway obstruction.
A rounded shaped chest, with the same diameter anterior to posterior as it is transversely is
A depression at junction of xiphoid with the sternum is known as
A forward protrusion of the strernum is
rapid breathing >24 breaths/minute is known as
slow breathing <12 breaths/min is known as
shallow and slow breaths is
tachypnea with very large breaths
Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis may have what type of breathing?
The absence of spontaneous breathing is
symptom similar to dyspnea but SOB when lying down. Severity gauged on how many pillows are needed, usually with underlying pulmonary edema or CHF.
SOB when lying down at night and associated with CHF is
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
periodic breathing, with periods of apnea is known as
(T/F) Cheyne-Strokes respiration can be normal in infants and children.
The costal cartilages of the 1st and 7 ribs articulate with the
cartilages of the 8th, 9th, and 10th ribs articulate with the
what ribs are known as "floating ribs" and have no anterior attachment?
11th and 12th ribs
Posteriorly, this rib is the starting point for counting ribs and intercostal spaces and provides an alternate to the anterior approach.
the right lung can be divided into
upper, middle, and lower lobes
the left lung can be divided into
upper and lower
a palpable vibration generated from the larynx and transmitted through the patient's bronchi and lungs to the chest well is
the process of assessing sounds transmitted through the organs and cavities of the body by generating tapping is known as
lightly striking the chest with the ulnar aspect of the fist is
direct percussion can be used to determine tenderness over which organs?
kidneys or liver
using a finger of one hand to strike the finger of the other hand that is resting on the area of the chest being percussed is known as
this type of percussion tone is found when there is too much air present, such as pneumothorax and emphysema
_______ tone over bone or with an abnormal density such as with consolidation from pneumonia or with pleural effusion.
a loud and "drum like" tone that is most often noted over intestinal air is
the evaluation of the movement of the diaphragm during breathing and measures the contraction of the diaphragm is
the most important examination technique for assessing air flow through the tracheobronchial tree is
the ____ of the stethoscope is used for high-pitched sounds such as bowel, lung, and normal heart sounds
the _______ of the stethoscope is used for low-pitched sounds such as abnormal heart and vascular sounds
______ sounds are predominately expiratory, are loud and high pitched.
bronchial breath sounds
______ sounds area found when air moves through medium-sized airways, such as mainstem bronchi.
bronchovesicular breath sounds
vesicular breath sounds are mostly heard in
peripheral lung tissue
when examining the lobes, the front of the chest is generally the _____lobes.
the posterior chest is generally the _____lobes.
disruption of airflow in the smaller airways, high or low pitched, typically not cleared by cough, and resemble sound made by strands of hair rubbed together
wheezing can represent
airway obstruction from mucus, spasm, or foreign body
low pitched and snoring like sound that can occur during inspiration or expiration is known as
______ is caused by airway obstruction and is often confused with wheezing.
_________ are sound produced from friction between the visceral and parietal pleura in conditions of inflammation such as pleurisy. Low-pitched and heard in both inspirator and expiratory phases.
Auscultating the posterior chest and having the patient say "99" is
the most common chronic respiratory disease encountered in athletics is
what are the two components that lead to airway obstruction in relation to asthma
inflammation and bronchospasm
genetics, family history of asthma, obesity, and male gender are what type of risk factors?
intrinsic risk factors of asthma
___________ are medications that act upon the beta adrenoceptors and relax muscles of the airways, which widen the airways and result in easier breathing
this test is performed to evaluate how "reactive" or "responsive" your lings are to things in the environment (in relation to asthma)
Methacholine challenge test
the _____ _______ meter can provide a quick test of pulmonary function and help assess effectiveness of medications.
the ________ test measures the volume of air the lungs can hold, the rate of flow of air in and out of the lung, how forcefully one can empty air from the lungs and the lung tissue compliance.
what test can measure how easily oxygen enters the bloodstream?
diffusing capacity test
The SABA treatment can be repeated every ____ minutes for ______hour(s), if needed.
20 minutes; for one hour
(T/F): EIB is generally more common in summer sport athletes who compete in hot ambient temperatures.
False: more common in winter sport athletes who compete in cold environments
any inflammatory condition of the bronchial passages is referred to as
(T/F) Acute bronchitis is most commonly caused by self-limiting viral infections.
nonreversible airway obstruction is typically found in
the destruction of the alveoli and pulmonary capillary bed, with decreased ability to oxygenate blood is known as
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
Generally diagnosed in those with long-standing airway obstruction and tobacco use.
a diagnosis that is given to any condition that results in inflammation of the lung parenchyma is known as
T/F: PNA is often confused with bronchitis.
tuberculosis is possible if PNA is located in the ____lobes.
the most common bacterial pathogens of PNA are
treatment of PNA and 1st inline ABX therapy is
any inflammation of the pleura that causes subsequent pain, also known as pleuritis or pleuritic chest pain is
An acute respiratory infection caused by influenza A or B, outbreaks in the US usually occur during which months?
fall and winter months
rhinovirus is also known as
the common cold
A highly contagious bacterial infection caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis is
the most common test for TB is a
mantoux tuberculin skin test (PPD)
what is one of the most common cancers in the united states?
Result of gas or air trapped in the pleural space between the parietal and visceral pleura, causing the lung to collapse is known as
In open pneumothorax, air enters via ___ _____ to the chest wall.
in closed pneumothorax, air enters via
lung injury; chest wall remain intact
a common sign of pneumothorax is
a shift of the trachea away from the affected lung.
this type of pneumothorax occurs in the absence of a traumatic injury to the chest wall
more common in tall, thin men in their 20's to 30's
hemothorax diagnosis is made if blood is aspirated via thoracentesis. This is usually a result from
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