Chapter 38 Flowering Plants: Transport
Terms in this set (44)
The diffusion of a solute across a membrane in a process that is energetically favorable and does not require an input of energy.
In a solution, the process that occurs when a solute moves from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration.
A method of passive transport of solutes down a concentration gradient that involves the aid of a transport protein.
A transmembrane protein that forms an open passageway for the direct diffusion of ions or molecules across a membrane.
A membrane protein that binds a solute and undergoes a conformational change to allow the moment of the solute across a membrane; also called a carrier.
A transport protein in the form of a channel that allows the rapid diffusion of water across the cell membrane.
The transport of a solute across a membrane against its gradient (from a region of low concentration to a region of higher concentration). Active transport requires an input of energy.
The difference between the electric charges outside and inside a cell; also called a potential difference (or voltage).
A type of transporter that binds tow or more ions or molecules and transports them in the same direction across a membrane; also called a cotransporter.
Turgor pressure (osmotic pressure)
The hydrostatic pressure required to stop the net flow of water across a membrane due to osmosis.
The term used to describe a plant cell whose cytosol is so full of water that the plasma membrane presses right up against the cell wall; as a result, turgid cells are firm or swollen.
The shrinkage of algal or plant cytoplasm that occurs when water leaves the cell by osmosis, with the result that the plasma membrane no longer presses on the cell wall.
A plant cell in which the concentration of solutes is the same as that in the external fluid environment. A flaccid cell has a water content higher than a plasmolyzed cell, but lower than a turgid cell.
The potential energy of water.
Solute potential (S)
The component of water potential due to the presence of solute molecules.
Pressure potential (P)
The component of water potential due to hydrostatic pressure.
Relatie water content (RWC)
The property often used to gauge the water content of a plant organ or entire plant; RWC integrates the water potential of all cells within an organ or plant and is thus a measure of relative turgidity.
The process by which a plant cell modifies the solute concentration of its cytosol.
The export of material from one cell into the intercellular space and then into an adjacent cell.
The movement of a substance from the cytosol of one cell to the cytosol of an adjacent cell via membrane-lined channels called plasmodesmata.
All of a plant's protoplasts (the cell contents without the cells walls) and plasmodesmata.
Refers to the continuum of water-soaked cell walls and intercellular spaces.
The movement of solutes along cell walls and the spaces between cells.
Suberin ribbons on the walls of endodermal cells of plant roots; prevent apoplectic transport of ions into vascular tissues.
The mass movement of liquid in a plant caused by pressure, gravity, or both.
Water-conducting cells in plants that, when mature, are always dead and empty of cytosol; include tracheids and vessel elements.
A thin-walled circular area in a plant celwall where secondary wall materials such as lignin are absent and through which water moves.
A type of plant cell in xylem that conducts water, along with dissolved minerals and certain organic compounds.
In a plant, a pipeline- like file of dead, water conducting vessel elements.
Osmotic pressure within roots that causes water to rise for some distance through a plans stem, under conditions of high soil moisture or low transpiration.
Droplets of water at the edges of leaves that are the results of root pressure.
The evaporative loss of water from plant surface into sun-heated air.
The explanation for long distance water transport as the combined effect of the cohesive forces of water and evaporative tension.
A specialized plant cell that allows epidermal pores (stomata) to close when conditions are too dry and to open under moist conditions, allowing the entry of CO2 need for photosynthesis.
The process by which a leaf drops after the formation of an abscission zone.
A component of the phloem tissues of flowering plants; thin-walled cell arranged end to end to form transport pipes.
The perforated end wall of mature sieve-tube element.
Sieve plate pores
One of many perforations in a plant's sieve plate.
Phloem protein; the proteinaceous material used by plat phloem as a response to wounding.
The process of conveying sugars to sieve-tube elements for long-distance transport.
The plant tissues or organs that produce more sugar that they consume in respiration.
The plant tissues or organs in which more sugar is consumed than is produced by photosynthesis.
1. A type of mutation in which on easement of a chromosome becomes attached to a different chromosome. 2. A process in plants in which phloem transports substance from a source to a sink.
Explains sugar translocation in plants as a process driven by differences in turgor pressure between cells of a sugar source, where sugar is produced, and cells of sugar sink, where sugar is consumed.
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