Behavior Modification Final

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a positive reinforcer is defined as...
an event which when presented immediately following a behavior causes the behavior to increase
when a behavior must occur before a reinforcer will be presented, we say that the reinforcer is __________ upon that behavior
contingent
stimuli, which are reinforcing without the need for prior learning are called...
primary or unconditioned reinforcers
___________ is likely to be a primary or unconditioned reinforcer
candy bar
a stimulus that was not originally reinforcing but acquires reinforcing power by being frequently associated with a stimulus that is reinforcing is called....
a conditioned reinforcer
a behavioral deficit is...
too little of a particular behavior
a behavioral excess is...
too much of a particular behavior
a child does not pronounce words clearly and does not interact with other children. These are examples of...
behavioral deficits
a behavioral response results in the removal of an aversive or punishing stimuli and that behavioral response is strengthen and increases in frequency in the future. this is an example of....
negative reinfrocement
events or conditions that temporarily alter the effectiveness of a reinforcer are called...
motivating operations
when reinforcement occurs after some, but not all responses, an ________ schedule of reinforcement is being used....
intermittent
each time you turn on the TV, a picture appears. This is an example of...
continuous reinforcement
during piece-rate pay in a sewing factory, a worker is paid $10.00 for every ten pairs of pants. This is an example of...
fixed-ratio schedule
"reinforcement occurring after a variable number of responses, where the number varies around some mean value" defines the _________ schedule
variable-ratio
at home, checking the clothes dryer for dry clothes will eventually be reinforced by the clothes being dry. This would be an approximation of a __________ schedule
variable-interval
if a parent ignores the behavior of a child, that is an example of extinction if....
the parent's attention was reinforcing the child's behavior
if, in a given situation, an individual emits a previously reinforced response which is not followed by the usual reinforcing consequence, then that person....
is less likely to do the same thing again in that situation
the reappearance of an extinguished behavior following a rest is called...
spontaneous recovery
a dollar bill may not be reinforcing for a young child who has had no experience with money. However, after the dollar bill is paired with a variety of back-up reinforcers while making various purchases in the store, the dollar bill becomes a powerful reinforcer. This is an example of the development of a...
generalized conditioned reinforcer
what is a good example of a conditioned reinforcer?
money
reinforcement is given at the end of a time interval, provided that the number of responses during that interval do not exceed some specified number. This is the definition of......
limited-responding Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate (DRL) behavior
reinforcement is given immediately after a response during a session, provided that the response is separated from the preceding response by some minimal time period. This refers to a....
spaced-responding Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate (DRL) behavior
a _________ is a schedule for decreasing a response by reinforcing an alternative response that is incompatible with the response to be eliminated
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible behavior (DRI)
Suzie plays the slot machines in Las Vegas, her behavior is reinforced on what schedule?
variable-ratio
a procedure that involves extinction of problem behavior, combined with reinforcing an alternative behavior that is dissimilar to, but not necessarily incompatible with the problem behavior is known as a...
Differential Reinforcement of an Alternative behavior (DRA) schedule
this stimulus signals the availability of reinforcement for a particular response
discriminative stimulus
when a particular behavior is likely to occur in the presences of a particular stimulus and not others, we say that _____ exists
stimulus control
if a child is reinforced for swearing in front of other kids, but not for swearing in the presences of his parents, we would say that the parents are _______ for swearing
an S delta
an "out of order" sign on a vending machines is a ________ for putting money in it
an S delta
if teaching a child to say "red" in the presence of red objects increases the chances that the child will also say "red" to pink objects, we say that has occurred
stimulus generalization
the form of a behavior or spatial configuration of a behavior is referred to as....
topography of behavior
when a teacher shows a student how to do a correct behavior, the teach is using a....
modeling prompt
what is not a major category of prompts...
psychological prompts
a guideline for effective application of shaping is to...
never move to a new approximation until the person has mastered the previous approximation
shaping is referred to as the method of...
successive approximations
if a parent tries to teach a child to hold a pencil and make a line on a piece of paper by physically guiding the child's hand, and if over successive trials the physical guidance is gradually lessened to the point where the child will be able to draw a line without any help whatsoever, the parent is using...
a fading procedure
Sally tells her dog to sit while pressing down on the dog's rump. When the dog is sitting, she gives it a dog treat. Over successive trials, Sally pushes the dog down with less and less force until eventually it is sitting on command. Sally's procedure exemplifies....
fading
shaping is a procedure that involves two basic principles, namely...
positive reinforcement and extinction
while teaching a child to obtain the appropriate colored object when the teacher said either "blue" or "green," the teacher's pointing to the correct object on a trial would be an example of...
a gestural prompt
an ending stimulus that you want to eventually control a target behavior is called a(n)....
final desired stimulus
a stimulus that was not originally punishing, but that acquired punishing power through association with other punishers is the definition of...
a conditioned punishers
in a behavioral chain, a given stimulus is both...
a discrimitive stimulus (S D) and a conditioned reinforcer (R+)
when the initial step of a sequence is taught first, then the first and second steps are taught and linked together, then the first three steps, and so on until the entire chain is acquired, this describes....
forward chaining
a teacher gradually withdraws her physical guidance that was used to help a nursery school child learn to trace the letter "A." eventually the child can trace the letter by herself. This is an example of...
fading
the process of breaking a task down into smaller steps or components responses to facilitate training refers to...
task analysis
a traffic ticket is best described as an example of...
response cost
a sequence of discriminative stimuli (S Ds) and responses (Rs) in which each response produces the SD for the next response with the entire sequence followed by a reinforcer is referred to as...
a behavioral chain
following an inappropriate behavior a child is placed in a relatively barren room for a brief period of time. This is an example of...
time-out
punishers that activate physical pain receptors that typically evoke feelings of discomfort are included in the category of...
physical punishment
an event in which, when presented immediately following a behavior, causes the behavior to decrease in frequency, is referred to as a....
punisher
both escape conditioning and the punishment procedure employ...
aversive events
which procedures both increase the likelihood of the target response
positive reinforcement and escape conditioning
another name for "conditioned aversive stimulus" is...
warning stimulus
when an aversive stimulus is presented after a response and the response decrease in frequency, this procedure is called...
punishment
in a city where frequent unpredictable rain showers occur, carrying an umbrella to work each morning, even though the sky is clear might be an example of...
Sidman avoidance conditioning
a stimulus that elicits a response without prior learning or conditioning is called an...
unconditioned stimulus
when a person salivates at the sight of food, the response is salivating is an...
unconditioned response
suppose that an adult has a chronic problem with constipation. During treatment, each morning the adults inserts a suppository, reads the morning paper, and in a few minutes experiences a bowel movement. After a month of this procedure, the bowel movement occurs after reading the paper. In this example, the CS is...
reading the paper
in one type of aversion therapy with alcoholics, a drug is added to an alcoholic beverage so that sipping the beverage causes nausea. eventually, just the sight and smell of the beverage causes nausea, which hopefully decreases excessive drinking of alcohol. in this treatment, the CS is...
the smell of the drink
a child is approached by a dog and is knocked down, which causes the fear. the next time the child sees a dog, the child experiences fear, which subsides when the child runs away form the dog. the child's fear of the sift of the dog was primarily caused by...
respondent conditioning
a child is approached by a dog and is knocked down, which causes fear. the next time the child sees a dog, the child experiences fear, which subsides when the child runs away from the dog. the child's running away from the dog is maintained by...
escape conditioning
the child hears the bell (which rings continuously) of an ice cream wagon, goes out to the street and buys ice cream, bites the ice cream, and salivates. the sound of the bell will become a(n) _______for the response of salivation
conditioned stimulus
the child hears the bell (which rings continuously) of an ice cream wagon, goes out to the street and buys ice cream, bites the ice cream, and salivates. the sound of the bell will become a(n) ____ for going to the street to buy ice cream
discriminative stimulus (SD)
the autonomic reaction that you feel inside during the experience of an emotion is primarily influenced by...
respondent conditioning
the way that you learn to express an emotion is primarily influenced by...
operant conditioning
the way that you become aware of and describe your emotions is primarily influenced by...
operant conditioning
in behavioral terms the emotion we call joy (or happiness) is essentially caused by..
presentation of reinforcement
a child who calls all four-legged animals "dog" is exhibiting...
stimulus generalization
an infant learns to say doggy to a large dog. later, the infant sees a different kind of dog and says doggy. this represents stimulus generalization due to...
physical similarity
suppose that a child is typically noncompliant when asked to do a particular task. the teacher therefore asks the child to perform three tasks in succession that the child likes to do, and then asks the child to perform the task on which he is noncompliant. as a result of this procedure, the child performs all four tasks. this illustrates....
behavioral momentum
if you tell someone to stop eating candies and the person stops, then that would be an example of...
rule-governed behavior
a behavior that has been gradually strengthened by the direct-acting effects of reinforcement is said to be...
contingency shaped
rule-governed control over behavior is especially effective when...
a rapid behavior change is desirable

a specific behavior will lead to immediate and severe punishment

natural consequences for that behavior are delayed
a parent says to a child, "if you study for an hour each night this week you can watch the late movie on Friday night" This example involves a(n)...
indirect-acting reinforcer
the partial rule "drive slowly" identifies the...
behavior
which of the following procedures would you probably use if you wanted to decrease an excessive behavior...
operant extinction
presenting physical contact to guide someone through appropriate behavior is called
physical guidance
if after having been reinforced for imitating a number of behaviors, an individual imitates a completely new behavior the first time that behavior is modeled, we say that ____ has occurred....
generalized imitation
in order to "get up the energy" to follow her usual exercise routine on a saturday afternoon, the exercise buff places some dumbbells in the center of the den (where she usually exercises) and turns not he tv to the local fitness channel. which category of situational inducement is the exerciser practicing....
rearrange the existing surroundings
a procedure in which a client practices particular behaviors in a practice setting to increase the likelihood that those behaviors will occur appropriately in the real world is called....
behavioral rehearsal
according to Suzie's teacher, "Suzie is a good student because she is highly motivated." this is an example of _______ view of motivation...
a traditional
events that temporarily alter the effectiveness of consequences as reinforcers or punishers are called...
motivating operations
with unconditioned motivating operations...
the value-altering effect is innate and the behavior altering effect is learned
with conditioned motivating operations...
both the value-altering and behavior altering affects are learned
a child comes home from school and is hungry. the parents tells the child that there are fresh cooking in the cupboard, and the child can have one. this instruction from the parent is an example of a(n)...
SD (discriminative stimulus)
a child goes into the kitchen and asks a parent for a glass of milk. the request by the child is an example of a(n)...
mand
a parent tells his teenage daughter that she can earn points for mowing the lawn, and when a certain number of points have been earned, she can exchange them for use of the family car. the description of the points program is a(n)...
CMEO (conditioning motivating establishing operation)
after eating a big meal, food is no longer a reinforcer. food satiation is an example of a(n)...
UMAO (unconditioning motivating abololishing operation)
with unconditioned motivating operations, the value-altering effect is innate or genetically based...
true
the behavioral view of motivation conceptualizes motivation as some "thing" within us that causes our actions...
false
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