10 terms

Hydronephrosis Pathology

Pathology week 6
What is the "official" definition of Hydronephrosis?
Hydronephrosis is an obstructive disorder of the urinary system that causes dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces with urine. If hydronephrosis is long-standing, the resultant increases in intrarenal pressures causes ischemia, parenchymal atrophy, and loss of renal function.
What is the "etiology" (causes) of Hydronephrosis?
The most common cause of hydronephrosis is a calculus, it can also occur as a congenital defect or because of a blockage of the system by a tumor, stricture, blood clot, or inflammation.
What is the "prognosis" of Hydronephrosis?
The long term challenges of hydronephrosis are reversible if the cause of obstruction is relieved early in the process. Treatment may include a ureteral stent that allows the ureter to drain into the bladder, a nephrostomy tube that allows the blocked urine to drain through the back and antibiotics for infection.
What is the "incidence" of Hydronephrosis in the United States?
Unilateral hydronephrosis occurs in approximately 1 in 100 people; its also fairly common in babies.
What is the "prevalance" of Hydronephrosis in the United States?
Some researchers have found that up to two percent of all babies, mostly boys, have prenatal hydronephrosis (this usually clears up on its own). Men, particularly those older than 60, are also more likely to be affected because, as men age, the prostate gland tends to increase in size and block the flow of urine.
What is the "mortality rate" of Hydronephrosis in the United States?
Morbidity and mortality due to urinary tract obstruction is secondary to renal insufficiency/failure, salt-loosing nephropathy, urinary concentrating defects, renal tubular acidosis, hyperkalemia, hypomagnesium, hypophosphatemia, urinary tract infection, renal calculi, hypertension, polycythemia, neonatal ascites and post-obstructive diuresis.
What is the "morbidity rate" of Hydronephrosis in the United States?
Blockage can usually be relieved, but if relief takes too long, the kidney can be damaged permanently. However, because one normally functioning kidney is enough to sustain the body, permanent kidney failure is unlikely to develop unless both kidneys have been blocked for some time, usually at least a few weeks. The prognosis also depends on the cause of obstruction. For example, an untreated infection is more likely to cause kidney damage than a kidney stone.
Under which "causative agent" can Hydronephrosis be classified?
Which classification is Hydronephrosis? Additive or Destructive
Radiographically, how is Hydronephrosis portrayed on a general imaging study?
CT is quickly replacing the conventional IVU exams that would typically be used to diagnose hydronephrosis. However an IVU may be necessary to help differentiate renal system or stones from hydronephrosis. When contrast is used, the renal pelvis and calyces will appear dilated and radiopaque.