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Levels of Structural Organization / Organ Systems

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Movement, Responsiveness, Digestion, Metabolism, Excretion, reproduction, Growth.
List the Functional Characteristics necessary to maintain life in humans
Movement
change in position of the body or of a body part; motion of an internal organ. (cardio, digestive, and urinary system)
Responsiveness
is the organism's ability to sense changes taking place inside or outside the body
Digestion
Is the braking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.
Metabolism
combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
Excretion
Is the process of removing wastes, or excreta, from the body. (Digestive system, urinary system)
Reproduction
Occurs at the cellular and the organismal level. The orginal cell divides, producing two identical daguhter cells that may then be used for body growth or repair.
Growth
Is an increase in size of a body part or the ogranism. it is usually accomplished by increasing the number of cells. However, individual cells also increse in size when not dividing.
Nutrients, Oxygen, Water, Normal Body Temperature, Appropriate Atmospheric Pressure
List the 5 survival needs of the body
Oxygen
gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells. ( 20% of the air we breathe)
Water
Accounts for 60-80% of our body weight and is the single most abundant chemical substance in the body.
Normal Body Temperature
If Chemical reactions are to continue at life-sustaining rates, 98.6 F (37 C) must be maintained. (If temperatures drops below 98.6 F metabolic reactions become slower and slower and finally stop. If above 98.6 F chemical reactions occur at frantic pace and body proteins lose their characteristic shape and stop functioning.
Appropriate Atmospheric Pressure
Is the force that air exerts on the surface of the body. Breathing and gass exchange in the lungs depends on it.
Nutrients
Chemical substances in food that your body needs to grow, to repar itself, and to supply you with energy. (Carbohydrates are the major energy fuel for body cells.
Homeostasis
Balance, or a dynamic state of equilibrium.
Nervous and endocrine systems
These two systems together control the bpdy responses to changes in the environment. Hint (homeostasis is maintained by the...)
Receptor, Control Center and Effector
All Homeostatic control mechanisms are processes involving at least three components that work together. What are they? Hint (Homeostasis)
Receptor
Is some type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes, called stimuli, by sending information (input) to the second component, the control center.
Control center
processes information and directs the effector to make an appropriate response. Hint ( Set point)
1) Stimulus: Produces change in variable
2) Receptor: Detects Change
3) Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center
4) Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector
5) Response: of Effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stimulus and returns variable to homeostatic level.
What are the 5 steps in homeostatic control
Negative Feed back and Positive Feedback Mechanisms
What are the two types of Homeostatic control Mechanisms?
Negative feedback mechanisms
Some substance that has gotten too high or too low (Temperature - when it goes higher than the set point so receptors notice this and sends a message to the hypothalamus then it will send a message to the blood vessels and they expand to evaporate heat and sweat and that causes your temperature to lower and go back to the set point)
Positive feedback mechanism
The result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the activity (output) is accelerated.
Homeostatic Imbalance
disturbance of homeostasis or the body's normal equilibrium