Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Biology 102 Final Exam
Terms in this set (136)
The branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings.
Ecologists study environmental interactions at different hierarchical levels. What are those levels? What might an ecologist working at each of these levels study?
-Organism- how organisms acquire nutrition, what traits they have one individual in a population.
-Population- what effects the size of a population, seed dispersal of flowers
-Community- multiple species living in same area, How do different organisms compete for food
-Ecosystem- nonliving components and living components ; moisture, soil, energy
What is a population and a community? How do they interact?
-Population: A group of individuals of the same species living in a particular geographic area
-Community: An assemblage of all the populations of organisms living close enough together for potential interaction - all of the biotic factors in the environment
The global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Sums up all of the Earth's ecosystems. Most complex level in ecology.
The number of individuals an environment can support.
Carbon footprint: total sets of greenhouse gas emissions caused by a person, event, organization, or product
amount of land per person needed to support their resources
What country has the largest carbon and ecological footprint?
use of resources responsibly so that leaves resources to support future generation
sum of benefits mankind receives from the environment
What are the four major groups of benefits that humankind receives from ecosystems?
-provisioning (product): food, water, raw materials, genetic resources, medicines
-regulating: climate control, pest/disease control, waste decomposition, purification of water/air
-supporting: nutrients cycles, crop pollination, seed dispersal
-cultural (spiritual/recreational help)
primary energy source for all ecosystems
physical rather than biological; not derived from living organisms. non-living component
living organisms, of, relating to, or resulting from living things, esp. in their ecological relations. Living Organisms
examples of abiotic components
Gases, nutrients, temperature, and water, sunlight
How do abiotic components affect organisms?
Their presences and activities often change the environment they inhabit. Organisms must be adapted to these abiotic components.
What special abiotic components can be found in aquatic environments that aren't issues for terrestrial environments?
Solute & oxygen concentration
What special abiotic components can be found in terrestrial environments that aren't issues for aquatic environments?
wind, fire, and drying out
Which nutrients often limit the distribution and abundance of photosynthetic organisms?
Phosphorus, Nitrogen, and Sulfur
What causes dead zones?
algal blooms, low oxygen concentration, low levels of phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulfur (which algae needs)
How have human activities affected the biosphere/what are major concerns of our time?
habitat manipulation through deforestation and pollution, global warming through carbon emissions, extinction of certain species, habitat loss through agriculture
primary source of energy for hydrothermal vent communities
hydrogen sulfide gas
What organisms live in hydrothermal vent communities and what do they eat?
worms, crabs, and bacteria
food chain: bacteria are producers and everything else consumes them
The Pronghorn antelope (American antelope) is a highly successful herbivore of the Great Plains in N. America. How is this animal adapted to biotic and abiotic factors in it's environment?
-thick coat with hairs that have hollow shafts which enables airflow that the body warms in the winter and raises in the summer to allow circulation
-coarse, dry grass is the food which is ground up by flat teeth
nutrients received from organisms in the gut breaking down food
-keen eyesight and hearing
Are the pronghorn antelopes' adaptations useful in a different environment like a grassland?
NO, if the environment changes, they would become extinct
What causes climate variations?
uneven heating of earth's surface bc of the shape of the planet and how equator protrudes out, input of solar radiation
What do we mean when we say that climate is affected by the amount of solar radiation received?
Climate determines the distribution of communities and the climate is determined by the input of solar energy and the planets movement in space. It varies with latitude.
What causes seasonal variations?
tilt of earth's axis
What does Earth's axis's tilt have to do with seasonal variation?
When the earth changes the degree of tilting, it causes that part of the earth to be closer to the sun and causes warmer temps, when it tilts farther away it causes cooler temps.
area with the least variation in rainfall and temperature
tropics because they are located on the equator
major factors that shape aquatic communities
-Light, oxygen levels, distance from the shores, the availability of nutrients, freshwater vs. saltwater
rivers flowing into oceans (meeting of fresh and salt water)
areas saturated with water either permanently or seasonly on the banks of rivers and coastal areas where land meets water
Name important characteristics of both estuaries and wetlands.
-estuaries: salt gradient, important as a nursery site
-wetlands: natural flood protection bc the plants slow the movement of water, plants can purify the water
Is an estuary or a wetland more biologically productive?
Which ocean zone is the most demanding physically? Why?
Intertidal zone bc organisms are getting bashed by waves so it's really demanding. When tide goes out, they are left to dry so they have to be adapted to extreme changes.
Different zones of aquatic biomes
open ocean away from the shore
supports fish, squid, and marine mammals
bottom of the ocean
supports a variety based upon light penetration levels (depth)
part of the ocean with light penetration
photosynthesis occurs here
vast, dark ocean region where light does not penetrate
most extensive part of the biosphere
[IN PHOTIC ZONE] shallow area where continent edges are submerged
coral reefs found here
some light but not enough for photosynthesis
area of the shore where ocean coincides
dry when tide is out, wet when tide is in
could be a wetland or an estuary
What are phytoplankton and where are they found?
Microscopic organisms that live in both salty and fresh water and are autotrophic
examples of freshwater biomes
lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, and wetlands
How does a river vary from its source to its mouth?
Source: cold, fast-moving water; no phytoplankton; crustaceans and algae; high oxygen content; clear water
Mouth: warmer, slow-moving water; plenty of phytoplankton; higher nutrient content; cloudy water
8 major terrestrial biomes
temperate broadleaf forests
6.6 to 13 feet of rainfall/ year
dominated by grasses and scattered trees
warm year round
dramatic seasonal variation of rainfall
fire is an important factor
many of world's largest grazing animals inhabit here
low, unpredictable rainfall (less than 30 cm a year)
mild rainy winters
small coastal areas exclusively
treeless except along rivers
temperate broadleaf forests
temperatures vary over wide range
evergreen trees mostly
long cold winters
expansive areas of arctic
bitter cold temperatures
small shrubs and trees
extremely cold year round, low precipitation
Fires are very important in which terrestrial biomes?
Chaparral, grasslands, and savannas
permanently frozen subsoil found in the tundra
scientific study of the nature and status of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions; it seeks to counter the biodiversity crisis
The variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem (genetic diversity, species diversity, ecosystem diversity)
how many different species are in an area (2 components: species richness and relative abundance)
all of the biotic and abiotic variations
what is the difference between an endangered species and a threatened species
endangered: at the brink of extinction now
threatened: at the brink of extinction in the near future
reasons for habitat destruction
harvesting of resources
Introduced species (also called "non-indigenous" or "non-native") that adversely affect the habitats and bioregions they invade economically, environmentally, and/or ecologically
How are invasive species a problem?
They may disrupt by dominating a region, wilderness areas, particular habitats, or wildland urban interface land from loss of natural controls (such as predators or herbivores). They out compete the natural species.
release of a natural enemy to invasive species (ex. rabbits from Australia and the virus released upon them)
natural home or environment of an animal, plant, or other organism
The sum of an organism's use of biotic and abiotic resources
Predation leads to diverse adaptations in prey species. What are some of these adaptations?
Has to do with natural selection (only the fittest survive) Ex= camouflage, mechanical defenses (claws teeth), and chemical defenses(venom, toxins)
Herbivory leads to diverse adaptations in plants. What are some of these adaptations?
Certain types of teeth that are used for grinding the plants and certain types of enzymes used for the digestion of leaves and other plant material. Plants have spines and thorns, and chemical toxins
food chain/food web
sequence of food transfer up the trophic levels
pattern of feeding relationships consisting of several different levels
each of several hierarchical levels in an ecosystem
compromising organisms that share the same function in the food chain and the same nutritional relationship to the primary sources of energy
producers --> primary consumers --> secondary consumers --> tertiary consumers
How much energy is available from one trophic level to the next?
Why do we say that energy flows through an ecosystem but chemicals cycle?
we need a constant input of energy because it gets used up as it goes through the levels
never gets used up, just passes on to the next organism
support all other trophic levels, they are autotrophs
animals that eat primary producers
eat primary consumers
carnivores/meat-eaters and omnivores/everything-eaters
eat secondary consumers
animals that consume dead matter
fungi or other organisms that break down material
producers plus how much plant matter they make through photosynthesis
most productive aquatic ecosystem
most productive terrestrial ecosystem
species richness (of species diversity)
number of different species within a community
relative abundance (of species diversity)
proportional representative of a species in a community
what is the difference between species richness and species abundance
richness: how many species are in the area
abundance: number of individuals in each species
What happens to a community as a result of a disturbance (man-made or natural)?
An event that damages biological communities. Storms, fire, floods, or human activity. Severity of disturbances vary from community to community.
progressive colonization (she said "of plants") by a variety of species
change gradually (takes many years) replaces other species
3 biggest threats to biodiversity
habitat loss (greatest concern), invasive species, overharvesting
A species whose impact on its community is larger than its abundance indicates. It occupies a niche that holds the rest of its community in place.
why is a keystone species so crucial to the success of an ecosystem?
they hold the rest of the community in place because of their crucial activities (contribute to biodiversity)
What is the ozone layer and what is destroying it?
layer of concentrated oxygen, pollution in general destroying it
What do we expect to see in the future due to destruction of the ozone layer?
more cases of skin cancer
Buildup of gases that absorb heat and trap them in our atmosphere. Results from solar energy warming our planet. Gases in the atmosphere reflect heat back into Earth, keeping the planet warm (result is global climate change).
What is global climate change and how is it affecting ecosystems and the organisms that live there?
global temperatures rising (most severe in the arctic)
sea ice and permafrost are melting (hunting grounds for polar bears and others)
rising sea levels
in other areas, organisms are shifting their range in response to temp change
timing is getting messed up (caterpillars and birds)
the increasing concentration of toxic substances within each successive link in the food chain
Why is it considered less costly for the environment when we eat vegetables/plants than say eating beef?
if we were primary consumers we would be receiving a larger % of energy from the producers rather than the energy diminishing as it traveled through the animals we would then eat as secondary/tertiary consumers
Why is eating beef (or meat of any kind) environmentally costly?
It takes up a lot more land to grow food to feed us, feed animals, and raise animals, than to simply grow food to only feed us.
Population was separated into different sections
A harmful effect of habitat loss & can lead to extinctions
benefits/problems associated with movement corridors
benefits: we can connect isolated populations
problems: increases the spread of the disease
they have a very diverse number of species and some of them are found nowhere else but these hotspots
Long term prosperity of human societies and the ecosystem. It provides an economics base for people living there.
Extensive regions of land with one more areas undisturbed by humans (protected areas)
relationships between 2 or more different species
occurs when a shared resource is limited
What is the predicted result when two species compete for a limited resource?
Competition lowers the carrying capacity of competing populations. One will win.
Benefits both partners. Reef Building corals require mutualism
Leads to diverse adaptations in prey species
Benefits the predator but kills the prey
Leads to diverse adaptations in plants
Usually not fatal
Plants have defenses against them
Some animal eats plants
infect a host
Parasites: live in/on a host from which they get nourishment (tapeworms, mosquitoes, ticks)
pathogens: disease causing parasites (bacteria, viruses, fungi)
Cleaning up a polluted site with microorganisms to break it down (like oil spills)
What is the core theme of biology that explains both the unity and diversity of life?
over time, it results in evolution of new species adapted to particular environments
only heritable traits are passed down through generations
happens when the size of a population or even an entire species is suddenly reduced, with lasting effects on at least one generation
A founder effect occurs when a new colony is started by a few members of the original population
How do they reduce genetic diversity in a population?
The persistence of populations over time through changing environments depends on their capacity to adapt to shifting external conditions. Sometimes the addition of a new allele to a population makes it more able to survive; sometimes the addition of a new allele to a population makes it less able. Still other times, the addition of a new allele to a population has no effect at all, yet the new allele will persist over generations because its contribution to survival is neutral.
occurs when selection favors the intermediate trait value over the extreme values
occurs when selection favors one extreme trait value over the other extreme
occurs when selection favors the extreme trait values over the intermediate trait values
biological species concept
Defines a species as members of populations that actually or potentially interbreed in nature, not according to similarity of appearance. Although appearance is helpful in identifying species, it does not define species
morphological species concept
If they look the same, then they are the same species.
any aspect that prevents 2 species from successfully mating
time, geographical barrier, behavior, incompatible gametes, sterile offspring, physically incompatible reproductive organs
dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria that ensures the survival of a bacterium through periods of environmental stress
Thin, slimy film of bacteria that sticks to a surface
Group of bacteria, which make their own food by the process of photosynthesis
Live in the water
Oldest known fossil
How do we think multicelled organisms evolved?
From a colonial protist!
Arise from a single cell and generate multi-cellular
above ground reproductive structure
ripened ovaries of angiosperms
What kind of flowers and how much pollen is produced in a wind-blown angiosperm vs. one pollinated via a pollinator?
dull flowers: massive amounts of pollen
bright/scented flowers: more energy on making flower attractive, so less pollen
What was the first human trait to appear in fossil record?
What was next, and so on?
2. loss of hair
3. larger brains
4. symbiotic thought
-Live in the cells of each coral polyp
-Produce sugars used by the polyps
-Provide at least half of the energy used by the coral animals
Sets found in the same folder
Bio 101 Final
Bio 102 Exam 1
Sets with similar terms
Conservation Biology - Test #1
AP Environmental Science: Unit 3 Ecology
APES: Unit 2 - Living World Vocabulary (…
Other sets by this creator
Group Comm Unit 1
Western Civ 241 Midterm
African Studies Final 235