AP History Chapters 26-30 Review
Terms in this set (215)
Servicemen's Readjustment Act (GI Bill 1994)
A government legislation designed to solve the problem of what the 15 million soldiers would do once they got back home. It allowed all servicemen to have free college education once they returned from the war, and it created the Veterans; Administration allowing them to take out loans.
A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
Low interest rates on mortgages that were government-insured and tax deductible made the move from the city to the suburb affordable for almost any family. In a single generation the majority of middle-class Americans became suburbanites.
A region of the United States generally considered to stretch across the South and Southwest that has seen substantial population growth in recent decades, partly fueled by a surge in retiring baby boomers who migrate domestically, as well as the influx of immigrants, both legal and illegal.
Employment Act of 1946
Congress passed this act in an attempt to keep the United States at full employment at all times.
a 25 percent inflation rate hurt the economy in the first year and a half of peace after WWII; United Mine Workers and others, including railroad workers, went on strike for higher wages
Committee on Civil Rights
Truman bypassed the southern Democrats in key seats in Congress and established this committee to challenge racial discrimination in 1946.
An amendment to the Constitution stating that no president can be elected to said office more than twice, and no person who inherits the presidency due to death can be elected more than once. This amendment had little, if any, awareness published about it, as people had little concern for it and weren't very involved.
Taft-Hartley Act (1947)
The Act was passed over the veto of Harry S. Truman on the 23rd June, 1947 ("slave-labor bill"). The act declared the closed shop (contract requiring workers to join a union before being hired) illegal and permitted the union shop (contract requiring workers to join a union after being hired) only after a vote of a majority of the employees. It also forbade secondary boycotts. (the practice of several unions giving support to a striking union by joining a boycott of a company's products)
Also known as the "Bull Moose Party", this political party was formed by Theodore Roosevelt in an attempt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President William Howard Taft in the election of 1912. After Taft won the Republican Party's nomination, Roosevelt ran on the Progressive party ticket.
A former Democratic who ran on the New Progressive Party due to his disagreement on Truman's policy with the Soviets. He caused the Democratic party to split even more during the election season.
States-Rights party (Dixiecrats)
The conservative faction of the Democratic Party that split and abandoned support for Truman during his run for reelection due to his support for civil rights. The presidential candidate for this party was J. Strom Thurmond. He lost to Truman. Truman succeeded in reuniting Roosevelt's New Deal coalition, except for the four southern states that went to Thurmond.
J. Strom Thurmond
He was nominated for president on a States' Rights Party (Dixiecrats) in the 1948 election. Split southern Democrats from the party due to Truman's stand in favor of Civil Rights for African American. He only got 39 electoral votes.
He was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. As a leader of the liberal faction of the Republican party he fought the conservative faction led by Senator Robert A. Taft, and played a major role in nominating Dwight D. Eisenhower for the presidency in 1952.
An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.
(HT) 1946-1988, Churchill said it was a "iron curtain" between eastern and western Europe, A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years, US against Communism (containment)
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
Refers to a country formally independent but primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power initially used to refer to Central and Eastern European countries of the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War. It implied that the countries in question were "satellites" under the hegemony of the Soviet Union
A political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He later wrote standard histories of the relations between Russia and the Western powers.
He was an American statesman and lawyer; as United States Secretary of State in the administration of President Harry S. Truman during 1949-1953, he played a central role in defining American foreign policy during the Cold War.
Policy introduced by Harry S. Truman after WWII that said the duty of the U.S. was to stop the spread of Totalitarianism (implying Communism); Defined the foreign policy for the period after WWII until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
East Germany; West Germany
the Western half was Democratic, the Eastern Half was Communist, this was a difficult time for Germany, Germany was divided into four sections the west was divided between U.S., France, and Britain, the west half was Soviet Union, the division is known as the Iron Curtain
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
1949 alliance of nations that agreed to band together in the event of war and to support and protect each nation involved
National Security Act (1947)
1947 Congress passed this act, it was a law that created two new agencies, the National Security Council (NSC) and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), these two new agencies would advise the president on national security and the CIA would inform the president on intelligence gathered
Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their respective armed forces and weapons
Chinese civil war
War between communist Mao Zse Tong and nationalist Chaing-Kai Shek. The communists took over and forced the nationalists to retreat to Taiwan
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.
About 100 miles off China's southeastern coast,used to be a providence of China for several hundereds years, and the people of China fled to this country for nationalism
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
People's Republic of China
1949; government on the mainland; communists had an alliance with the soviets; expanded under Mao's reign
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition
Kim II Sung
Communist leader of North Korea; his attack on South Korea in 1950 started the Korean War. He remained in power until 1994.
Korean leader who became president of South Korea after World War II and led Korea during Korean War.
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
U.N. police action
taking advantage of a Soviet boycott of the Security Council, the US pushed the UN to send forces to help South Korea in the war under this name. However, no war was officially declared.
Line that divided Korea - Soviet Union occupied the north and United States occupied the south, during the Cold War.
Smith Act (1940)
Required fingerprinting and regulating of all aliens in the US. It made it a crime to teach or advocate the violent overthrow of the government. The basis of later prosecutions of members of the Communist and Socialist Workers parties.
McCarran Internal Security Act (1950)
1950 - Required Communists to register and prohibited them from working for the government. Truman described it as a long step toward totalitarianism. Was a response to the onset of the Korean war.
House Un-American Activities Committee
was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. In 1969, the House changed the committee's name to "House Committee on Internal Security"
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury.
A confessed Communist and a star witness for the HUAC in 1948 when he testified against Alger Hiss.
Klaus Fuchs, a British scientist, who had worked on the Manhattan Project, admitted giving A-bomb secrets to the Russians. An FBI investigation traced another spy ring to Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. After a controversal trial in 1951, the Rosenbergs were found guilty of treason and executed for the crime in 1953.
1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists
election of 1948
This U.S. presidential election is considered by most historians as the greatest election upset in American history. Virtually every prediction (with or without public opinion polls) indicated that incumbent President Harry S. Truman would be defeated by Republican Thomas Dewey. Truman won, overcoming a three-way split in his own party. Truman's surprise victory was the fifth consecutive win for the Democratic Party in a presidential election. Truman's election confirmed the Democratic Party's status as the nation's majority party, a status they would retain until the 1980's.
(FDR) United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy, Casablanca and the defeat of Nazi Germany
election of 1952
A race between Dwight D. Eisenhower for the republicans and Adlai Stevenson for the democrats. Eisenhower won in a landslide.
election of 1956
saw a popular Dwight D. Eisenhower successfully run for re-election. This election was a rematch of 1952, as Eisenhower's opponent was Democrat Adlai Stevenson II, whom Eisenhower had defeated four years earlier.
President Eisenhower's views. Claiming he was liberal toward people but conservative about spending money, he helped balance the federal budget and lower taxes without destroying existing social programs.
Highway Act (1956)
was enacted on June 29, 1956, when a hospitalized Dwight D. Eisenhower signed this bill into law. Appropriating $25 billion for the construction of 40,000 miles (64,000 km) of interstate highways over a 10-year period, it was the largest public works project in American history to that point.
John Foster Dulles
As Secretary of State. he viewed the struggle against Communism as a classic conflict between good and evil. Believed in containment and the Eisenhower doctrine.
The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
Eisenhower's policy; it advocated the full use of American nuclear weapons to counteract even a Soviet ground attack in Europe
Also known as developing nations; nations outside the capitalist industrial nations of the first world and the industrialized communist nations of the second world; generally less economically powerful, but with varied economies.
A theocratic islamic republic in the Middle East in western Asia.
undercover intervention in foreign government by the CIA during Eisenhower's presidency.
a peninsula of southeastern Asia that includes Myanmar and Cambodia and Laos and Malaysia and Thailand and Vietnam
A conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Vietnam.
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
1954-1975--Nationalist/Communist attempt to unite the country against Western intervention led to U.S war there.
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (1954)
SEATO; A regional defense pact pulled together by Dulles to prevent the "fall" to communism of South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia
Suez Canal crisis (1956)
Nasser of Egypt seized and nationalized the British and French owned Suez Canal. In response, Britain, France, and Israel carried out a surprise attack against Egypt and retook it. This infuriated Eisenhower. Britain and France would never gain play role of major power in world affairs.
Policy of the US that it would defend the Middle East against attack by any Communist country
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
An economic organization consisting primarily of Arab nations that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations.
spirit of Geneva
USSR and US conferring on peace in 1955, couldn't agree on demilitarization or Open Skies but suspended nuclear tests
A Soviet leader during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Also famous for denouncing Stalin and allowed criticism of Stalin within Russia.
Term used by Khrushchev in 1963 to describe a situation in which the United States and Soviet Union would continue to compete economically and politically without launching a thermonuclear war.
When the Hungarians tried to win their freedom from the Communist regime in 1956, they were crushed down by Soviet tanks. There was killing and slaughtering of the rebels going on by military forces.
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
In response to the Soviet Union's launching of Sputnik, Congress created this federal agency in 1957 to coordinate research and administer the space program.
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals
The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
The act of freeing of any law, provision, or practice requiring isolation of the members of a particular race in separate units
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Chief Justice during the 1950's and 1960's who used a loose interpretation to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes.
Little Rock Nine
In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students. The governor ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. The next day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year.
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Montgomery bus boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
civil rights acts of 1957, 1960
prohibiting discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, sexual preference and national origin by federal and state governments as well as some public places
Civil Rights Commission
set up by the Civil Rights Act and was made to investigate violations of civil rights and authorized federal injunctions to protect voting rights
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
An organization founded by MLK Jr., to direct the crusade against segregation. Its weapon was passive resistance that stressed nonviolence and love, and its tactic direct, though peaceful, confrontation.
A peaceful way of protesting against restrictive policies. Martin Luther King Jr. preached a philosophy of nonviolence and asked people not to retaliate with violence out of fear or hate.
a form of protest used during the Civil Rights Movement. Students from the NAACP Youth Council began this movement by sitting in segregated lunch-counters and refusing to leave even in the when physically assaulted. This is a form of direct action protest.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism
The transition from an industrial society to a service society, where there were more white collar jobs than blue collar jobs: promoted conformity and teamwork
a culture in which personal worth and identity reside not in the people themselves but in the products with which they surround themselves
A United States youth subculture of the 1950s that rebelled against the mundane horrors of middle class life.
John F. Kennedy
1960; Democrat; Cold War: Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis; established the Peace Corps, domestic program called the "New Frontier," promoted civil rights, major supporter of the space program; assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in 1963
election of 1960
Brought about the era of political television. Between Kennedy and Nixon. Issues centered around the Cold War and economy. Kennedy argued that the nation faces serious threats from the soviets. Nixon countered that the US was on the right track under the current administration. Kennedy won by a narrow margin.
election of 1964
Barry Goldwater (R) vs. LBJ (D) Signaled important political changes. Last time democrats could win by proposing New Deal-ish programs that increased government power
Kennedy's plan, supports civil rights, pushes for a space program, wans to cut taxes, and increase spending for defense and military
(JFK) , volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Alliance for Progress
(JFK) 1961,, a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems, money used to aid big business and the military
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.
Cuban missile crisis
(JFK) , , an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn't invade Cuba
the buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
A treaty signed by the Soviet Union and the United States, and roughly 100 other countries, that ended the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere.
Commission made by LBJ after killing of John F. Kennedy. (Point is to investigate if someone paid for the assasination of Kennedy.) Conclusion is that Oswald killed Kennedy on his own. Commissioner is Chief Justice Warren.
1963-1969, Democrat , signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy families. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
War on Poverty
1965 - Johnson figured that since the Gross National Profit had risen, the country had lots of extra money "just lying around," so he'd use it to fight poverty. It started many small programs, Medicare, Head Start, and reorganized immigration to eliminate national origin quotas. It was put on hold during the Vietnam War.
Michael Harrington; The Other America
Wrote a best-selling book on poverty; Helped to focus national attention on the 40 million Americans still living in poverty.
1964; Republican contender against LBJ for presidency; platform included lessening federal involvement, therefore opposing Civil Rights Act of 1964; lost by largest margin in history
Great Society programs to have the government provide medical aid to the elderly and the poor.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965)
1965 - Provided federal funding for primary and secondary education and was meant to improve the education of poor people. This was the first federal program to fund education
Civil Rights Act of 1964
banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
The equal right of all citizens to the opportunity to obtain employment regardless of their gender, age, race, country of origin, religion, or disabilities.
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it brought jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
He was a civil rights advocate who spurred a riot at the University of Mississippi. The riot was caused by angry whites who did not want him to register at the university. The result was forced government action, showing that segregation was no longer government policy.
March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
I Have A Dream speech
A speech given by Martin Luther King, Jr. at the demonstration of freedom in 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial. It was an event related to the civil rights movement of the 1960's to unify citizens in accepting diversity and eliminating discrimination against African-Americans
Common name for the Nation of Islam, a religion that encouraged separatism from White society. They claimed the "White Devil" was the chief source of evil in the world.
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) Civil rights organization started in 1944 and best known for its "freedom rides," bus journeys challenging racial segregation in the South in 1961.
a black civil rights activist in the 1960's. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr.but later changed his attitude. He urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying,"black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
1964 riots which started in an African-American ghetoo of Los Angeles and left 30 dead and 1,000 wounded. Riots lasted a week, and spurred hundreds more around the country.
created in July, 1967 by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots in the United States
the chief justice that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education (1954); he was the first justice to help the civil rights movement, judicial activism
Gideon v. Wainwright
a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.
Escobedo v. IIllinois
a United States Supreme Court case holding that criminal suspects have a right to counsel during police interrogations under the Sixth Amendment.
Miranda v. Arizona
Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
Baker v. Carr
case that est. one man one vote. this decision created guidelines for drawing up congresional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state
Process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
one man, one vote
principle meaning that election districts would have to be redrawn to provide equal representation for all of states citizens
separation of church and state
Three Amish families sued the state of Wisconsin over its requirement that children had to be enrolled in school until the age of 16. The families claimed that their rights to freely exercise their religion were not being respected
Student for a Democratic Society
a group of radical student led by Tom Hayden, issued a declaration of purposes known as the Port Huron Statement, it called for university decisions to be made through democracy
Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.
A mode of life opposed to the conventional or dominant, that rejects established social values and practices, esp. among the young.
A social outlook that challenges traditional codes of behaviour related to sexuality and interpersonal relationships. The phenomenon took place throughout the Western world from the 1960s into the 1970s.
1960 Feminism and womens movement gained force: NOW in 1966; Main goals are to improve womens situations in education, work, reproductive freedom and child care; Backsliding in recent years
Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique
gave the women's movement a new direction by encouraging middle-class women to seek fulfillment in professional careers rather than confining themselves to the roles of wife, mother, and homemaker.
National Organization for Women
was founded in 1966 by feminists calling for equal employment opportunities and equal pay for women. also came to advocate an equal rights amendment, changes in divorce laws, and legalization of abortion.
Equal Pay Act (1963)
Required the employees performing substantially similiar or identical work be paid the same wage or salary
Equal Rights Amendment
constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
..., the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1964 Congressional resolution authorizing President Johnson to take military action in Vietnam
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
hawks and doves
Hawks are people who supported the war's goal. and Doves were people who opposed the war.
He was a Democrat who ran for president in 1968 promoting civil rights and other equality based ideals. He was ultimately assassinated in 1968, leaving Nixon to take the presidency but instilling hope in many Americans.
Racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"); runs for pres. In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of racism and law and order, loses to Nixon; runs in 1972 but gets shot
A prominent liberal senator from Minnesota dedicated to the promotion of civil rights, he served as Johnson's vice-president from 1964-68 and ran an unsuccessful personal campaign for the presidency in 1968.
1968 and 1972; Republican; Vietnam: advocated "Vietnamization" (replace US troops with Vietnamese), but also bombed Cambodia/Laos, created a "credibility gap," Paris Peace Accords ended direct US involvement; economy-took US off gold standard (currency valued by strength of economy); created the Environmental Protection Agency, was president during first moon landing; SALT I and new policy of detente between US and Soviet Union; Watergate scandal: became first and only president to resign
election of 1968
McCarthy challenged LBJ, who was politically wounded by the Tet Offensive and the Vietnam War; LBJ stepped down from the running, and Kennedy and McCarthy were left on the Democratic ballot; but Americans turned to Republican Nixon to restore social harmony and end the war
election of 1972
Placed Nixon against Democrat George McGovern, with the former being the embodiment of the radical movements Nixon's "silent majority" of middle-class Americans opposed, resulting in a landslide victory for Nixon
election of 1976
Ford vs Carter, Carter wins. Importaint because he was the first president from the south for a while and people thought he would bring fresh ideas
Awarded 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for helping to end Vietnam War and withdrawing American forces. Heavily involved in South American politics as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State. Condoned covert tactics to prevent communism and facism from spreading throughout South America.
A war policy in Vietnam initiated by Nixon in June of 1969. This strategy called for dramatic reduction of U.S. troops followed by an increased injection of S. Vietnamese troops in their place. A considerable success, this plan allowed for a drop in troops to 24,000 by 1972. . This policy became the cornerstone of the so-called "Nixon Doctrine".
(1969) Created during the Vietnam war. It proclaimed that the us would honor its existing defense commitments but in the future countries would have to fight their own war without support of large numbers of american ground troops. It also stated that aid, such as food, medicine, clothes, etc., would be delivered. Expected Asian allies to take care of their own military defense. Reduced American combat casualties. Nixon effectively revoked Eisenhower's, Kennedy's, and Johnson's policies of using the U.S. military to prevent Communism from spreading.
Ohio college where an anti-war protest got way out of hand, the Nat'l Guard was called in and killed 3 students (innocent & unarmed,wounded 9) in idiscriminate fire of M-1 rifles
1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
Mississippi university where two students were killed in 1970 by state police during a protest of the Vietnam War
A 7,000-page top-secret United States government report on the history of the internal planning and policy-making process within the government itself concerning the Vietnam War.
Paris Accords of 1973
an armistice between U.S. and Vietnam that promised a cease-fire and free elections
A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
Following a series of secret negotiations with Chinese leaders, Nixon traveled to Beijing in February 1972 to meet with Mao Zedong. The visit initiated diplomatic exchanges that ultimately led to US recognition of the Communist govt in 1979.
A Communist nation, consisting of Russia and 14 other states, that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
series of meetings in the 70s, in which leaders of the US and the Soviet Union agreed to limit their nations' stocks of nuclear weapons
A policy in 1969, that turned over powers and responsibilities of some U.S. federal programs to state and local governments and reduced the role of national government in domestic affairs (states are closer to the people and problems)
a period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation)
the Supreme Court justice durning the Nixon admistration. He was chosen by Nixon because of his strict interpretation of the Constitution. He presided over the extremly controversal case of abortion in Roe vs. Wade.
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
articles of impeachment
It was passed by the House Judiciary Committee and its key vote came in July 1974 when Nixon was accused of obstruction of justice with Watergate. Other articles talked of Nixon's abuse as president and his contempt for congress.
United States v. Nixon
1974 Supreme Court decision that required President Nixon to turn White House tapes over to the Courts.
War Powers Act (1973)
In 1973, Congress passed this law which requires that soldiers sent into military action overseas by the President be brought back within sixty days unless Congress approves the action.
Middle East War (1973)
When the Syrians and Egyptians launched a surprise attack on Israel in an attempt to recover the lands lost in the Six-Day War of 1967
OPEC; oil embargo
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries that placed an embargo on oil sold to Israel's supporters. Caused worldwide oil shortage and long lines at gas stations in the US.
(1974-1977), Solely elected by a vote from Congress. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. Evacuated nearly 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam, closing the war. We are heading toward rapid inflation. He runs again and debates Jimmy Carter. At the debate he is asked how he would handle the communists in eastern Europe and he said there were none and this apparently sealed his fate.
Cambodia; Khmer Rouge
a radical Communist faction that conducted genocide against over a million of its own people in Cambodia
(1977-1981), Created the Department of Energy and the Depatment of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Reagan in the next election.
Panama Canal Treaty (1978)
A pair of treaties to turn over control of the Panama Canal to the government of Panama. Ratified by the Senate.
Camp David Accords (1978)
Peace treaty between Egypt and Israel; hosted by US President Jimmy Carter; caused Egypt to be expelled from the Arab league; created a power vacuum that Saddam hoped to fill; first treaty of its kind between Israel and an Arab state
Iran; hostage crisis
a group of Iranians overran the American embassy in Iran's capital of Tehran and took 52 hostages
Environmental Protection Agency
respecting pollution prevention and the protection of the environment and human health in order to contribute to sustainable development."
A set of beliefs that includes a limited role for the national government in helping individuals, support for traditional values and lifestyles, and a cautious response to change.
religious movement whose objectives are to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy
Political action committees (PACs)
A committee set up by a corporation, labor union, or interest group that raises and spends campaign money from voluntary donations
Abortion rights; Roe v. Wade
This court decision legalized the right to abortion and sparked the pro-life movements that united Catholics and fundamentalist Protestants, who believe that life begins at the moment of conception.
Discrimination against individuals who are not members of a minority group.
Regents of University of California v. Bakke
supreme crt. decision in 1978 that ruled that rigid quota planfor admissions violated the Constitution's equal protection guarantee, but that race could be considered a "plus" factor in college admissions to increase student body diversity
1981-1989,"Great Communicator" Republican, conservative economic policies, replaced liberal Democrats in upper house with consevative Democrats or "boll weevils" , at reelection time, jesse jackson first black presdiential candidate, Geraldine Ferraro as VP running mate (first woman)
Supply-side economics (Reaganomics)
An economic philosophy that holds the sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government.
was an American lawyer, jurist, and political figure who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States.
Budget and trade deficits
Reached a staggering $150 billion a year due to increase consumption of foreign made luxury items; resulted in the US becoming a debtor nation for the first time since WWI
Ronald Reagan's description of Soviet Union because of his fierce anti-communist views and the USSR's history of violation of human rights and aggression.
Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars)
Became known as Star Wars and would be able to shoot missiles down from space. Critics claimed it could never be perfected.
Nicaragua; Sandinistas; Iran-Contra Affair
Reagan sponsored an effort in this nation to remove the Marxist regime controlled by this group. He gave military aid to the "contras" until Democrats passed the Boland Amendment to end this aid
Middle East; Palestine Liberation Organization
Israel invaded southern Lebanon to stop PLO terrorists from raiding Israel; Secretary of State Geore Schultz pushed for a peaceful settlement of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict by settin gup a homeland for the PLO in the West Bank territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
Republican vice-presidential nominee in the 1988 election; ridiculed for factual and linguistic mistakes; George H. Bush's running mate in 1988 and 1992 , who had a hard time spelling "potato"
Soviet Union breakup
Many republics declared independence; the Soviet government was clearly powerless to stop the fragmentation. The Communist Party and Soviet government became powerless and ceased to exist.
End of the Cold War
Marked by the fall of the Soviet Union which was the result of Eastern European countries gaining independence, Gorbachev's reform policies, and a series of nuclear limitation treaties.
Panama Invasion (1989)
Ordered by Bush in December 1989 to remove the autocratic General Manuel Noriega. The said purpose of the invasion was to stop Noriega from using the country as a "drug pipeline" to the US.
- Was a dictator in Iraq who tried to take over Iran and Kuwait violently in order to gain the land and the resources. He also refused to let the UN into Iraq in order to check if the country was secretly holding weapons of mass destruction.
Persian Gulf War (1991)
Conflict between Iraq and a coalition of countries led by the U.S. to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait which they have invaded in hopes of controlling the oil supply. A very one-sided war with the U.S. coalition emerging victorious
Operation Desert Storm
the United States and its allies defeated Iraq in a ground war that lasted 100 hours (1991)
an American politician, advocate and philanthropist, who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States (1993-2001), under President Bill Clinton. He was the Democratic Party's nominee for President and lost the 2000 U.S. presidential election despite winning the popular vote.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
an agreement between Canada, the United States, and Mexico that created the world's largest free trade zone
Sandra Day O'Connor
a retired United States Supreme Court justice, and in 2013 was listed as a NAFTA adjudicator. She served as an Associate Justice from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan until her retirement from the Court in 2006. She was the first woman to be appointed to the Court.
George H. W. Bush
(1989-1993) , President after Reagan, was in presidency when the Cold War ended and when Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, he also sent troops to Iran which started the Persian Gulf war.
an American politician who served from 1993 to 2001 as the 42nd President of the United States. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the Cold War, and was the first president from the baby boomer generation. He has been described as a New Democrat. Many of his policies have been attributed to a centrist Third Way philosophy of governance.