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Terms in this set (60)
2 or more of the following: 6+ cafe-au-lait spots > 5mm in kids/15mm in adults; 2+ lisch nodules; sphenoid dysplasia; 2+neurofibromas, freckling in axillary or inguinal region; optic glioma; 1st degree relative
neurofibromatosis I, AD disorder of c17.
Cafe au lait spots (fewer than 6), bilateral neuronal hearing loss. No tumors noted.
Neurofibromatosis II; AD disorder of c22 .
Port wine stain in unilateral v1/v2 distribution, epilepsi, eye abnormalities, glaucoma, intellectual disability, hemiatrophy.
Sturge Weber syndrome; noninheritable congenital disorder.
Seizures, ash-leaf spots, shagree npatch, adnemoma sebaceum; possibel epilepsy and intellectual disability and hemangioblastomas
Tuberous sclerosis, AD disorder of hamartin/tuberin
skin lesions that occur when the deeper layers of the skin do not develop correctly or the components of these layers occur in the wrong proportion. Shagreen patches are oval-shaped and nevoid, skin-colored or occasionally pigmented, smooth or crinkled
Innervation of the dorsum of the foot and the distal shin; injury assoc. w/ foot drop
supf. peroneal nn innervation
Innervation of the proximal/lateral shin.
Common peroneal n.
innervation of the lateral foot
sural n. innervation
innervation of the skin between toes 1-2
deep peroneal nn.
Chinese pt w/ unilateral nasal pain/congestion, rhinoscopy shows white nodules.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, assoc. w/ EBV
Gestational sac without cardiac activity, significnatly small for gestational age
Previously pregnant, no fetus visualized
previously pregnant, some retention of products of conception
pregnant, hx. of bleeding, cramping, dilated cervix, fetus visualized and correct size. Before 32 weeks.
vaginal bleeding, cervix closed, fetus is correct for age.
Murmur systolic/Diastolic; Left sternal border w/ Wide fixed splitting of S2
Atrial septal defect
Murmur: Early diastolic, left lower sternal border greater than right second intercostal space, decrescendo with radiation to the carotid.
6 or more cafe au-lait spots, 2+ lisch nodules, sphenoid dysplasia, freckled axilla + inguinal area, optic glioma. 1st degree relative has the same condition.
Neurofibomatosis 1, von Recklinghuasen dz; AD or spontaneous mutation of chromasome 17 - nuerofibromin.
Cafe-au-lait spots, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Neurofibromatosis 2; chormosome 22 mutation of merlin
NFT1 vs. NFT2
More cafe-au-lait spots, greater diversity of tumors.
fewer spots. increasing deafness.
Port wine stain of V1/V2 distribution of trigeminal nn; epilepsy, glaucoma, intelletual disability, meiatrophy.
Sturge weber: non-inherited congential defect
seizures due to cortical tumors, intellectual disability, ash-leaf spots, Shagreen patch, adenoma sebaceum
Tuberous Sclerosis: defects in hamartin + tuberin
Renal cell carcinoma + pheochromocytoma + hemangioblastoma
Von Hippel Lindau Syndrome
Thyroid nodules: When to biopsy?
> 3 cm; use FNA.
Orphan Annie Nucleai, psammoma bodies in FNA of a thyroid nodule
Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma; MC CA (80%), slow growing, lymph spreading
Thyroid Nodule: High calcitonin.
Medullary thyroid carcinoma; look out ofr MEN 2A and 2B;
parathryoidhyperplasia, medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma
medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, Marfanoid neuromucco- gangliomas
Down's + Alzheimer's
Chromosome 21 + amyloid protien
Antibiotic associated with congenital CN VIII damage?
Amioglycosides; gentamycin, neomycin, amikacin, steptomycin
Antibiotic associated w/ congenital bone damage?
Antibiotic associated w/ gray baby syndrome?
Antibiotic associated w/ kernicterius?
Sulfas - via increasing free billi by displacing it from albumin
Loss of appetite
Ashen gray color of the skin
Hypotension (low blood pressure)
Cyanosis (blue discolouration of lips and skin)
Increased blood lactate
Gray baby syndrome; chloramphenicol
Flexing/abducting radiocarpal joint
Median nn, flexor carpi radialis
Extension of the wrist
Post. interosseous nn. Extrinsic wrist extensors outside carip radialis longs.
Dorsal little finger sensation
Ulnar nn. sensory
Intrinsic hand mm.
Ulnar nn. Motor
Sensation of the palmar thumb
median nn. sensory `
Supraclavicular sensory distribution
Shoulder, over the deltoid.
axillary nn. sensory distribution
Upper arm under the shoulder.
Radial nn. sensory distribution
Posterior arm, extending down the forearm to the posterior aspect of digits 1-3 up to the finger tips.
Ulnar nn. sensory
Medial/Palmar aspect of the hand + anterior/dorsal digits 4/5
Median nn. sensory ditribution
palmar distribution of digits 1-3 + posterior tips of fingers 1-3
extension of the thumb's interphalangial joint
Posterior interosseous nn.
Peripheral lung cancer in non-smoker,
Adeno-carcinoma of lung or Large-cell carcinoma, but adeno is much more prevalent.
Smoking associated, bulky tumor; likely disseminated by dx.
Small cell ling carcinoma
centrally located, coin like or a cavitary tumor assoc. w/ cough, dyspnea, atelectacis, wheezing, hemoptysis. Smoker associated.
Squamous cell lung carcinoma
Lung cancer + low phosphate + high Ca++?
squamous cell lung CA; produces PTH-like peptide
When to use CT-guided bx in lung cancer
Bx for peripheral lung ca.
When to use a fiberoptic bronchoscope
centrally located lung cancer
Endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum. An incision is made above the breastbone (suprasternal) for inspection and biopsy of lymph nodes in the underlying space (mediastinum).
Hemochromatosis pt. develops jaundice, RUQ pain, weight loss, elevated alk-phos
Likely hepatocellular carcinoma: CT now
Traumatic presentation, Horner's synd, headache, neck pain
suspect carotid dissection.
Class I shock
<15% blood loss, <750 ml volume lost, normal vitals/mentation
Class II shock
750-1500 ml blood loss, HR>100, hypotension, anxiety
Class III shock
1500-2000ml lost blood, or 30-40%, Hr> 120; usually needs blood transfusion
Class IV shock
>2000ml blood loss, HR>140, lethergy
low-level pain relief in hemophiliacs `
Acetaminophen; only one that will NOT increase bleeding.
Positive Likelihood Ratio (LR+)
sensitivity/(1-specificity): OR True Positive/false positive:
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