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FINAL EXAM (PSYCH)
Terms in this set (56)
the study of the causes and consequences of sociality
how people interact with each other
correlated with testosterone
damage to amygdala
positive or negative evaluation based on group membership
positive or negative behavior based on group membership
The Rattlers and the Eagles in Sheriff's Robber's Case Study very quickly demonstrated an "Us vs. Them" mentality. How were researchers able to reduce the hostility between the groups?
by telling the boys that their was a leak in the cabin and they all had to work together
Define group polarization
the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than any member would have made alone
Define groupthink. Give an example
an extreme form of group polarization/reaches a consensus in order to facilitate interpersonal harmony
Example: The bombing of Pearl Harbor. Many of the senior officers at Pearl Harbor did not take warnings from Washington DC about potential invasion seriously despite the fact that Japanese messages had been intercepted. Those who didn't take action believed that the Japanese wouldn't dare to attempt an assault against the U.S. because they would recognize the futility of war with the United States.
immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values
The more people there are, the less likely that one of them will come to your aid. (Responsibility to help is diffused.)
define bystander effect. how could this have contributed to the murder of kitty genovese?
we fail to take action because we assume that someone else will.
this contributed to the murder of kitty genovese because no one came to her aid when she was screaming. Instead, her neighbors watched because they thought someone else was going to help.
What are norms? Give an example of a social norm.
customary standards for behavior that are widely shared by members of a culture.
ex: elevator rules
Norm of Reciprocity
the unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them (buying Christmas cards)
Define conformity. Describe Asch's study that demonstrated this phenomenon.
the tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it. Asch's study demonstrates this phenomenon because some individuals submitted to group pressure while knowing the correct answer and still choosing the wrong one on the line test.
tendency to do what authorities tell us to do
Describe Stanley Milgram's research on obedience. What were participants asked to do? What were the results? What factors influenced the obedience of the participants?
The teacher administered electric shocks to a "learner" and continues even when the person is in agony because the experimenter says so; you are likely to keep going when someone tells you you must, even when the other person is getting hurt. When the experimenter left the room or the "teachers" lied about the shock, issued conflicting instructions, and refused orders it affected the level of obedience.
Describe Philip Zimbardo's Prison Study
What were participants asked to do? What were the results?
College students were randomly assigned to be prisoners/guards
Prisoners became distressed
Guards became harsh
Describe cognitive dissonance
there is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognition (beliefs, opinions). When there is an inconsistency b/w attitudes/behaviors (dissonance), something must change
Drawing inferences about an individual based on the categories/groups to which they belong
(inaccuracies, overused, self-perpetuating)
AUTOMATIC AND UNCONSCIOUS
what is perceptual confirmation and how does it relate to stereotyping
a phenomenon/tendency that occurs when observers perceive what they expect to perceive.
ex: white/**black basketball player picture
In general, how does the implicit attitude test work?
stereotypes are mix-matched aka counter to stereotype
it's unconscious and automatic which is why we cant stop since it's a heuristic/cognitive shortcut
behave how you are expected to behave
- phenomenon of someone "predicting" or expecting something, and this "prediction" or expectation comes true simply because one believes it will, and their resulting behaviors align to fulfill those beliefs.
Name the three treatment obstacles discussed in lecture.
3) structural barriers
Define mental disorder
Any behavior or emotional state that causes a person to suffer
- is self-destructive
- seriously impairs the person's ability to work or get along with others
- endangers others or the community
What is the DSM-V?
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
- standard reference used in the diagnosis
- list symptoms for each disorder
- includes cultural considerations
Dangers of Labeling
self-fulfilling prophecy (behave how you're expected to behave)
ex: schizophrenic --> a person with schizophrenia
marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations
ex: snakes, spiders, heights, enclosed spaces
generalized anxiety disorder
chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms:
restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance
Panic disorder (including agoraphobia)
Sudden occurrence of the feeling of terror, panic attacks (typically last a few minutes), anxiety about upcoming attacks
symptoms: shortness of breath, heart palpitations, sweating, dizziness
Agoraphobia: a common complication of panic disorders in public places
How would Preparedness Theory describe the development of phobias?
people are instinctively predisposed toward certain fears
ex: open spaces, darkness, high places
How would behavioral psychology describe the development of phobias?
According to the learning theory, phobias develop when fear responses are reinforced or punished. Both reinforcement and punishment can be positive or negative.
Describe and be able to identify Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
obsessions: repetitive, intrusive thoughts/images
compulsions: ritualistic behaviors designed to fend off the obsession
ex: showering, handwashing, counting, touching, checking
Describe and be able to identify Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
develops following a traumatic event
chronic physiological arousal
recurrent unwanted thoughts/images
avoidance of things associated w/ event
Describe major depressive disorder
Severely depressed mood and/or inability to experience pleasure
Lasts 2 weeks (accompanied by lethargy, sleepy, hunger, and feelings of worthlessness)
Women are twice as likely as men to be diagnosed with depression
Describe bipolar disorder
Cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (mania) and low mood (depression)
Manic phase include decreased amount of sleep, talkative, racing thoughts, distractibility, reckless behavior, grandiosity
How does Helplessness Theory explain the development of depression?
Negative experiences are caused by variables that are:
Internal (own fault)
Stable (unlikely to change)
the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality; altered or blunted emotion; and disturbances in thought, motivation, and behavior
- diagnosed equally, but men have a severe onset
positive symptoms of schizophrenia
Hallucinations: false senators experienced that feel real
delusions: false beliefs; of persecution, grandeur or control
disorganized speech: ideas shift rapidly / unrelated topics
cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia
problems with working memory, attention, verbal and visual learning and memory, reasoning and problem solving, processing, and speech
negative symptoms of schizophrenia
Loss of motivation, poverty of speech, emotional flatness
Describe autism spectrum disorder
--1) Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction manifested by deficits in...
--Nonverbal communicative behaviors
--2) Restricted, repetitive behavior manifested by > 2 of ...
--Repetitive motor movements
--Insistence on sameness
--Restricted interests that are abnormal
--Hyper/hypo reactivity to sensory input
--3) Symptoms must be present in early developmental period (usually by 2)
--There are leveled
Describe Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Severe inattention - difficultly with organization, memory, instructions
Sever hyperactivity - difficulty remaining still, waiting
Describe conduct disorder
Diagnosis's in childhood/adolescence
Persistent pattern of deviant behavior:
- against social norms
- aggression against people/animals
- destruction of property
- deceitfulness or theft
Identify the two broad categories of treatment.
psychological: interact with a clinician & use the environment to change behavior
biological: brain is treated directly with drugs and surgery
Name the psychologist who developed psychoanalysis
Describe modern psychoanalysis? (How is it different from the more traditional
modern psychodynamic therapists are more likely to offer support or advice in addition to interpretation and are less likely to interpret a client's statement as a sign of unconscious sexual or aggressive impulses, while transference fostering insight into unconscious processes remain features of the therapy. The difference between the more traditional version is that the therapist and client usually sit face to face, the therapy is less intensive, with meetings often occurring only once a week and therapy lasting months rather than years.
Describe person-centered therapy. Who developed this approach?
All patients have a tendency toward growth
Facilitated by acceptance from therapist
Describe Gestalt therapy. Who developed this approach?
Increase awareness of thoughts, behaviors, feelings/ focus more on what is happening then what is being discussed
How would a behavioral therapist eliminate or promote behavior?
ELIMINATE: investigate what happens after the behavior. the rudy of operant conditioning shows that behavior can be predicted by its consequences (reinforcing or punishing events that follow). adjusting these might help change behavior (make consequences less reinforcing or more punishing) ----- PROMOTE: token economy-giving clients tokens for desired behaviors, which they can trade later for rewards (positive reinforcement). downside = learned behavior not usually maintained after reinforcements stop.
Describe exposure therapy.
involves exposing the target patient to the anxiety source or its context without the intention to cause any danger. Doing so is thought to help them overcome their anxiety disorders
Describe cognitive restructuring. This technique is used in what type of therapy?
Identify and correct distorted thinking
Question automatic, negative thinking
Replace w/ realistic, positive thinking -------------- therapies: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
What are the two important characteristics of cognitive-behavioral therapy?
problem focused and action oriented
Identify/describe the two (non-pharmaceutical) biological treatments available for
ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY (ECT) - seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from mental disorders
TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION (TMS) - magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells in the brain to improve symptoms of depression
Describe the three "treatment allusions"
Natural improvements: the tendency of symptoms to return to their mean, or average level. there's nowhere to go but up, so there is bound to be an improvement, and patient attributes it to treatment even though it could just be b/c it couldn't get worse.
Placebo effects: an inert substance or procedure that has been applied with the expectation that a healing response will be produced
Reconstructive Memory: when a clients motivation to get well causes errors in memory about the original symptoms- remembering past symptoms as worse than they were and making treatment seem effective
impulse control disorders
a group of psychiatric disorders characterized by the inability to resist an impulse despite potential negative consequences
Identify the class of medications used to treat the following
Anxiety : ANTI-ANXIETY
Depression : ANTI-DEPRESSANT
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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