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Western Civ Final
Terms in this set (118)
Who recalled Rome's legions from the North to Italy to fight the Visigoths?
Upon which institutions was Christianity in Ireland centered?
Founded upon Monastic Schools which taught Latin and read scripture and secular texts.
Before becoming Kings of the Franks which important office did the Carolingians control?
Mayor of the Palace
What agreement divided the Carolingian Empire among three grandsons of Charlemagne
The Treaty of Verdun
Who wrote a rule that became the very foundation of Western monasticism?
Benedict - The Rule of St. Benedict
States that all must have an obedience to the Lord and to establish a school to God's service.
What were the three subjects studied in the trivium?
grammar, logic, and rhetoric.
What was the significance of the Battle of Tours in 732?
Layed the foundations of the Carolingian Empire and also pushed the Muslims out of France and began the push to get them out of Spain.
Why did Charlemagne choose Aachen as his capital?
It had perfect placement for invasions north into Germany.
What best explains why Ireland developed Christian customs practices of its own?
Distance and separation along with a different language.
For what were Irish monks renowned?
How was the Biblical passage in which Jesus granted Peter the "Power of the Keys" understood in the medieval period?
gave the Pope the power to excommunicate and create Church policy and teachings.
How did the homeland of the Britons become England?
When the Romans left it created a power vacuum. There weren't enough soldiers so local warlords hired Angles and Saxons from the North Coast of modern Germany. These mercenaries turned on their warlords and stayed on the island creating the Anglo-Saxon "Angleland" (England)
What are some of the problems encountered by historians studying the Dark Ages?
Little Written records to inform future generations,
What did the Truce of God ask of Knights?
not to fight on sundays
Which Muslim faction believed in the coming of a messiah?
Which great Abbasid caliph was Charlemagne's contemporary?
What did Leo III's edict concerning iconoclasm forbid?
destroyed religious icons of groups like Jews
Who was the great Anglo-Saxon king of Wessex who pushed back Viking invasions and founded a strong state that lasted for about a century?
In 1066 William "the Conqueror" conquered which territory?
Which medieval French monarch was able to recover much French territory from British control?
Phillip II of France
What strong king took the English throne in 1154, ending the civil war that erupted over the conflict between Stephen and Matilda?
King Henry II
Which was the most successful of the crusades?
The first crusade
Which pope launched the crusading movement with a sermon at Clermont in 1095?
Pope Urban II
By whom were the Russian cities of Novogrod and Kiev were initially settled?
When a serf fled into a town, how did he benefit?
after a year and one day he became legally free
How did the division of England into shires originate?
William divided then subjected the church and took control of everything
The Seljuk Turks became a major power in the Middle East after what tenth-century event?
the Battle of Manzikert
How did Otto I solve the problems of control he faced as he acquired more territory?
Dukes and rulers were appointed by loyalty and not lineage
Why did theologians challenge Leo III's edict concerning iconoclasm?
they belived that a ban on relifious images was a tantamount to the denial of Christs humanity
When the Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantines near Manzikert what saved Constantinople from being captured?
How did Henry's Charter of Liberties contradict the church's teaching at the time?
It gave limits to the powers of a King but the King was thought to be Gods choice to lead a people and thus have full rights to rule over their people.
What strategy did the church use that allowed it to steadily gain power over secular monarchs?
They recognized secular authority and blessed secular conquests if the secular rulers in turn recognized the pope. When this started to not work the pope declared himself the source of all spiritual and secular power. This didn't work for too long.
How did the development of towns drive the evolution of medieval society?
Created new options for free people
As an academic title, what is the literal translation of the world doctor?
What name was given to the men who worked as teachers at the new schools of the High Middle Ages?
professor or Profietor
The first mendicant order of friars was started by which Italian?
Francis of Assisi
What group of people were the original source of "Arabic" numerals and the concept of zero?
From people from India. "Brahmi Numerals"
What was the birthplace of Gothic-style architecture?
12th Century France
Who was the most famous exponent of the dialectic method?
Which thinker was especially admired and emulated by the Scholastics?
What was the name of the heretical group that spread into Western Europe from the Balkans and became the target of a crusade to force them out of France?
Which order focused on preaching, teaching, and combating heresy?
The Dominican Order
Which English king spent most of his reign out of his realm, led the Third Crusade, and was held captive in Germany?
Richard the Lion Heart
Entertainers of the High Middle Ages who wrote and performed lively lyrical poetry and music-primarily about love-were known by what name?
Troubadors (I think)
Henry II gained control of much of the Angevin Empire by marrying which heiress?
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Henry II expanded the use of documents that people could purchase to order royal officials to take action on the behalf-these were known as?
How did friars differ from earlier medieval monks?
Friars held jobs while praying and saving souls while monks just devoted their lives to prayer
As a collective, why did a universitas have considerable leverage in negotiations with local leaders?
Because students were a source of income for the town
Why would Edward I have maintained Parliament which had started out as an assembly that was potentially treasonous?
It only represented property owners who had money which king needed it.
What was entailed in a professor's glossing of a text?
they read a passage from a book and then commented on it, explaining its meaning and spelling out its implications.
The conflict between Henry II of England and Thomas Becket highlighted what issue in medieval Europe?
Rights and privileges of church
Although he was branded a heretic, Peter Waldo's call for believers to live a simple, Christ-like life, resembled the teaching sof which leading figure of the period?
Francis of Assisi
What did Thomas Aquinas think about the relationship between reason and faith?
need both to obtain true Gods true Knowledge, complimentary methods for understanding reality.
What problem of medieval government was reflected by an issue faced by both England's Henry II and John?
There was no way to resolve territorial disputes with regards to overlapping and equally-valid land claims except for war.
What was arguably the greatest impact of the cult of courtly love?
It set up the process by which a warrior-prince's desire for a woman allowed him to transform into a gentlemanly king to win her affections
What is the best way to describe the relationship that the Catholic Church of the High Middle Ages had with Aristotle's work?
They realized that there were contradictions and adopted a "Truth of Reason - Truth of Faith" approach until Thomas Aquinas in his summae masterfully consolidated Aristotelian and Biblical philosophy and teachings.
Which group did many Europeans blame for causing the Plague
Which Christian city was sacked during the 4th Crusade?
What was the name of the Venetian merchant who claimed to have visited the Mongol court and whose writings are a disputed source of information on thirteenth-century China?
What situation did critics refer to as "Babylonian captivity?"
The French national legislature, which first met in 1302 under Philip IV, was known by which name?
What was the underlying issue of the Hundred Years' War?
reluctance of French feudal aristocracy to accept cavalries dominance on the battle field
The idea that the final authority in spiritual matters belonged more broadly to the wider community of the Church was known by what term?
What might be considered the silver lining to the cloud cast over Europe by the Black Death?
reduced pressure on lower classes
The flagellant movement and more frequent depictions of the Last Judgment were responses to what medieval crisis?
The Black Death
What was involved in Innocent III's theory of Papal Monarchy?
All Christans were subjects of Pope, Kings accountable to Pope.
What role did Flanders have in the outbreak of the Hundred Year's War?
English would trade
What did the reduced temperatures of the Little Ice Age have a serious impact on Europe?
Killed crops and trade
Which statement best characterizes Innocent III's accomplishments?
"I have set you above kings and nations"
Who had the most to gain from the papcy's Babylonian Captivity at Avignon?
The stresses and changes of the late Middle Ages were, in the long run, most harmful to the status of which institution?
Who became known as the "FAther of Humanism?"
Who was the first major northern artist to take a serious interest in Italy's Renaissance?
Which country took the early lead in Atlantic exploration?
From the 1430s onward, the Medici family held political and cultural dominance in what Italian city?
For whom did Pope's 1494 Line of Demarcation mark spheres of influence?
Portugal and Spain
Who was the most prominent of the northern humanists?
In 1453, which Ottoman leader took the city of Constantinople, earning him the nickname "the Conqueror?"
Which explorer first rounded the southern tip of the African continent?
Which country sponsored the voyage of the Genoese sailor John Cabot?
Why did Columbus call the people he contacted in the Caribbean "Indians?"
He thought he had reached India.
How did Italy become home to four of Europe's five largest cities by 1400?
most of Euorpean trade passed through
When looking at the past, from which did Renaissance humanists draw their greatest inspiration?
How is the modernity of the writings of Danted, Petrarch, and Boccaccio best represented?
They were aimed at being accessible and read by the common people. Further, they depicted the world as it was, not as it should be (vulgar).
Why did Italy play a major role in the onset of the Renaissance?
Instability keept society open
What was a major factor motivating Portugal to take the lead in European Atlantic exploration?
lots of coastline isolated land
Why did the Europeans use Africans rather than Indians as slave labor in the Americas?
Africans resistant to disease already established
As a result of the pope's 1494 line of Demarcation, what was the only American colony established by Portugal?
What impact did the loss of Constantinople have on Europe?
Greeks scholars fled to italy
How may the advice of Machiavelli gave to rulers in The Prince best be characterized?
nothing matters except power
Shakespeare's plays were first performed during the reign of which English ruler?
What scholar unintentionally contributed to the Protestant Reformation through his Biblical studes?
Who protected Luther when the pope attempted to silence him?
Who sold indulgences with this jingle: "When a coin in my coffer rings, a soul from Purgatory springs?"
Under John Calvin's leadership, which city became a haven for Protestant refugees from all over Europe?
Apart from the Scandinavian states, which was the only major country to break with the papacy during the Reformation?
Which country represented the weakest point in Philip II's empire?
Who were the Huguenots?
Who succeeded Henry VIII as King of England?
Which agreement decreed that each prince could decide whether his state could be Catholic or Lutheran?
Peace of Augsburg
The Thirty Years' War ended with what treaty?
Treaty of Westphalia
Under Henry VIII, how should the Anglican Church best be described?
the same but no pope and divorce
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, how did German princes often derive benefits from their religious policies?
Pursued political advantages by embracing or opposing reformation.
What did Erasmus expect to be the result of his research and writings?
Make church more acessible
What did buyers believe they were paying for when they bought indulgences?
dispensation on the need to penance for ones sins
At the time he posted the Ninety-five Theses, how might Luther best be described?
trying to combat corruption
What did Catholics believe would be eliminated by the Calvanist belief that people could not earn salvation through good works?
The observation that the Reformation did not work in a social vacuum is clearly evidenced by the great changes it sparked in which country?
Why was the alliance Francis I made with Suleyman the Magnificent shocking to Europeans?
Made alliances with Muslims
How did Elizabeth handle the religious situation in England during her reign?
Tried to compromise between Catholics and Protestants
Under Henry VIII, why was the merchant class the strongest supporter of reform of the English church?
They had close commercial ties with the areas of Europe where Protestantism was spreading
How successful was Elizabeth I of England (r.1558-1603) in overcoming challenges to her rule?
Extremely. Guillotines and warships have their uses
Why did Henry of Navarre allegedly say "Paris is worth a Mass"?
renounced Protestantism. His entrance into the Roman Catholic Church secured for him the allegiance of the vast majority of his subjects
What fundamental belief of Catholics made them more likely to favor monarchical rule than Protestants?
The right to rule was bestowed on leaders as a divine mandate.
What was the significance of the battle of Lepanto (1571)?
(Ottomans Lost) It began the transition from large armadas fighting for control of the Mediterranean to the building of faster, larger vessels designed for exploring the Atlantic and trans-continental trade
Who was Frederick V of Bohemia - and how was he involved in the outbreak of the Thirty Years War?
He was the Elector (mini-king in the HRE) of Palatinate (HRE territory) who was asked to be king of Bohemia after the Bohemians revolted against their Protestant king (this event started the 30 years war)
What was at stake, and who were the protagonists in the Thirty Years War?
Religion, land, title, rank, money, everything. It was mostly a fight between protestants and catholics (but religious wars are never actually fought for "religion")
What were the terms of the Peace of Westphalia (1648)?
The Holy Roman Empire could still exist, but it couldn't really do much because all of its territories spoke different languages, had different religions, and the central government had no power.
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