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171 terms

Test 1 review

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Right femoral artery or Left femoral artery
If you wanted to examine a person's
coronary arteries, you would insert your
catheter in the
Right femoral vein or Left femoral vein
If you wanted to examine a person's
pulmonary arteries, you would insert your
catheter in the
Why does 1 mole of glucose weigh more than 1 mole of NaCl?
Molecular weight of glucose is greater than molecular weight of NaCl.
58 grams
If the molecular weight of NaCl is 58 grams, how much NaCl must
you add to a liter of water to make a 1 mol/L solution of NaCl?
. Which is more acidic, pH 6 or pH 8
pH 6
pH 2
. Convert 0.01 mol/liter H+ into pH
A concentration gradient.
For ions to diffuse through a membrane channel, what must exist?
It would gain water and become heavier.
What did we expect would happen to the potato slice left in water?
It would lose water and become lighter
What did we expect would happen to the potato slice left in 1 mol/L sucrose?
The pH went down because of the carbonic acid created by reaction of CO2 with water
What happened to the pH of water when you bubbled your breath through it?
It went down
What happened to the pH of water when you added acetic acid to it?
To stain tissues for microscopic study
What are hematoxylin and eosin used for?
40X
If you are using a 4X ocular lens and a 10X
objective lens, how many times magnified
is the tissue you are looking at?
Because of the one-way valves in veins
Why can blood flow in only one direction
in your veins?
More substrate More product
Add increasing amounts of substate to a
constant amount of enzyme
More enzyme Faster reaction
Add increasing amounts of enzyme to a
constant amount of substrate
hot
In the experiment testing the effect of temperature on an
enzymatic reaction, which reacted slowest?
warm
In the experiment testing the effect of temperature on an
enzymatic reaction,which reacted fastest
without acid
In the experiment using acid, which tube turned yellow
Pulmonary and aortic
The following valves are open during
during systole
Mitral and tricuspid
The following valves are open during diastole
Pulmonary stenosis and tricuspid regurgition
Systolic murmurs include
. Mitral and tricuspid stenosis
Diastolic murmurs include
Mitral regurgitation
Mitral valve prolapse can cause
Increase it
How will an atrial septal defect change blood flow to your lungs?
Increase it
How will a ventricular septal defect change blood flow to your lungs?
Injuring a papillary muscle
A heart attack can cause tricuspid regurgitation by
The left ventricle
Aortic regurgitation can cause enlargement of
. Left atrium
Mitral stenosis causes enlargement of
Joint pains, Skin rash, Heart valve damage ,
Rheumatic fever can cause
Bacteria
The most common cause of endocarditis is
. 5 - 15 year olds
Rheumatic fever is most common in
10% - 40%
What percentage of people who have rheumaticfever develop heart valve damage?
Is usually caused by viruses, . Causes chest pain, Can occur in otherwise healthy people , Can cause pericardial effusion ,
Pericarditis
How many valence electrons each has
Whether 2 atoms react together depends upon
Hydrogen, carbon, oxygen
The 3 most common elements in your body are
Same number of electrons and protons
An atom has the
Covalent bonds
Which is strongest?
Only molecules
Compounds are made of
Molecules of 2 oxygen atoms
In air oxygen exists as
More protons than electrons
A cation has
More electrons than protons
An anion has
Ionic
Which bonds are broken by water?
The outermost electrons in an atom
Valence electrons are
The more The more likely it is to react with other atomsenergy it has

The more likely it is to be lost in an ionic bond
The farther an electron is from the nucleus
It is a polar compound
Water is an excellent solvent because
Have an ionic end and a hydrophobic end
Have a hydrophilic end and a hydrophobic end
Are usually found in cell membranes
Phospholipids
Are small protein molecules
Are made with amino acids
Are made with peptide bonds
Peptides
DNA
The largest macromolecules are
Dissolved in cholesterol
Hydrophobic
Ions can never be
Have a positive and a negative end
Polar molecules
About ½
Water composes how much of your body weight?
They are attracted to both cations and anions
They are attracted to hydrogens that are bound to oxygen in covalent compounds
They are attracted to other polar molecules
Because water molecules have a positive and a negative end
Not polar
Hydrogens bound to carbons are usually
Depends on its sequence of amino acids
Depends on the R-groups of its amino acids
Depends on ionic bonds between R-groups
Depends on hydrophobic bonds
between R-groups
The 3-dimensional structure of a protein
A positive end and a negative end
charged end and an uncharged end
A hydrophilic end and a hydrophobic end
No charge at all
Depending on their structure molecules can have
Fat cells
Cell membranes
Hydrophobic molecules are concentrated in
Making molecules shake faster
Making molecules hit each other more frequently
Making molecules hit each other harder
Heat causes chemical reactions by
Is a long chain of glucoses
Is a polymer of glucoses
Glycogen
It cannot speed up one reaction without speeding up all the others

Heat denatures proteins
Heating is not a good way to speed up biochemical reactions because
Burning and cellular respiration create about the same amount of heat
Which creates more heat from a hamburger?
How difficult it is for 2 molecules to react
Activation energy measures
Have the right number of valence electrons
Collide with each other
Be oriented correctly when they collide
Collide with sufficient speed
In order to react 2 molecules must
Brings the molecules very close together
Sometimes twists the molecules
To make 2 molecules react, enzymes
Produce ADP from ATP
Produce phosphate from ATP
ATPases
Are negatively charged
Can change the shape of proteins
Phosphate groups
A few seconds
A cell can store enough ATP to last
Produce ADP from ATP
Produce phosphate from ATP
Bind phosphate to a macromolecule
Kinases
ATP
PO4=
ADP
Which of these can bind to macromolecules non-covalently?
Go without ATP
Get ATP from the liver
Get ATP from blood
Share ATP
Cells CANNOT
. In mitochondria and cytoplasm
ATP is made
Glucose and fatty acids
The raw materials for ATP synthesis are
Muscle and liver cells
Glycogen is found mostly in
. ATP, H, and pyruvic acid
The products of glycolysis are
Cytoplasm
Glycolysis occurs in the
Mitochondrial inner membrane
Hydrogen atoms removed from glucose during glycolysis go to the
Pyruvic acid
Which product of glycolysis goes to the mitochondrial matrix?
Pyruvic acid and fatty acids
Raw materials for the Kreb's cycle include
Go straight to the Kreb's cycle
Fatty acids
H, ATP, CO2
The products of the Kreb's cycle include
Glycolysis
Kreb's cycle
Hydrogen atoms for oxidative phosphorylation come from
Oxidative phosphorylation
Oxygen is necessary for
H2O, ATP
The products of oxidative phosphorylation are
It provides H for oxidative phosphorylation
It does not require oxygen
Glycolysis is important for cells because
H is oxidized
During oxidative phosphorylation
H is split into a proton and an electron
Oxygen combines with hydrogen
During oxidative phosphorylation
Only uses glucose
Glycolysis
ADP is phosphorylated
During oxidative
phosphorylation
30 - 35 ATPs
with the hydrogens from 1 molecule of glucose oxidative phosphorylation produces
At least 2000
How many times per day is each ADP converted to ATP?
it is used in other chemical reactions
What happens to the H+ produced during glycolysis?
4
During glycolysis how many hydrogens are removed from each glucose molecule?
Acetic acid
Before they begin the Kreb's cycle pyruvic and fatty acids are changed to a form of
ATP synthase
The enzyme that makes ATP in the mitochondrial inner membrane is
Actin
The main protein of thin filaments is
Myosin
The main protein of thick filaments is
Keeps actin separated from myosin
Moves when Ca++ enters a sarcomere
Tropomyosin
Myosin sticks to actin
When ADP and PO4= bind to a myosin head,
Myosin moves away from actin
When ATP sticks to a myosin head
Myosin head
ATP is converted to ADP and PO4= by
Mitochondria
ADP and PO4= are converted to ATP by
Stroke volume x heart rate
Cardiac output is
Increasing left ventricular filling
Increasing myocardial contractility
Stroke volume can be increased by
Increased filling
The volume of a heart chamber can be increased by
Sympathetic nervous system
Heart rate is increased by
Exercise
Sympathetic nervous system
Contraction (squeezing) veins
Blood return to the heart is increased by
Stretching heart muscle increases its contractility
Frank and Starling observed that
How much calcium is bathing the sarcomere
The number of contacts between actin and myosin
How much the sarcomeres are stretched
The sympathetic nervous system
Cardiac contractility depends on
Cardiac output decreases
Myocardial contractility decreases
Heart failure develops
If the sarcomeres are stretched too far
Veins
The majority of your blood is in
Branches, Striations, Mitochondria, Sarcomeres,
Cardiac muscle cells have
Sarcomeres
Striations are created by
From 5 L per minute to 30 L per minute
Exercise can increase resting cardiac output
Stretching of sarcomeres _2___ b. Increased cardiac output __3_ c. Increased left ventricular filling 1___
Put in order of occurrence
Myosin binds to actin _2___ b. Calcium enters the sarcomeres _1___ c. Myosin pulls actin __3__
Put in order of occurrence
. ADP and PO4++ are bound to myosin head ___1_ b. ATP binds to myosin head __4
Myosin pulls actin ____2_ d. ADP and PO4++ are released from myosin ____ 3
Myosin and actin separate ____5
Put in order of occurrence
Increased calcium is released into sarcomeres ____2_ b. Sympathetic nervous system activates __1__
Stroke volume increases __4___ d. Myocardial contractility increases ___3__
Put in order of occurrence
. Heart rate increases __2___ b. Sympathetic nervous system activates __1__
c. Cardiac output increases __3__
Put in order of occurrence
Increased cardiac output ____3_ b. Exercise _1___ c. Increased right atrial filling _2____
Put in order of occurrence
Calcium is pumped out of the sarcomeres _1___ b. Myosin separates from actin ___3_
c. Tropomyosin moves between myosin and actin __2__
Put in order of occurrence
Cardiac output decreases ___3__ b. Sarcomeres are overstretched ___1__ c. Contractility decreases _2___
Put in order of occurrence
70 mL
Normal stroke volume is about
3-fold
During exercise your pulse can increase about
Least
At rest cardiac contractility is
- charge on inside, + on outside
Cell membranes have
Inward diffusion of sodium
Depolarization of the cell membrane is caused by
Much greater inside a cell than outside
Potassium concentration is
Adjacent membrane depolarizes
Voltage-gated ion channels are opened when
Outward diffusion of potassium
Cell membrane polarization is mostly due to
The cell membrane depolarizes
Ca++ concentration is much greater
in the sarcoplasmic reticulum
Ca++ channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum
Calcium rapidly diffuses into sarcomeres because
The cell membrane
Transverse tubules are part of
Of gap junctions
Cardiac muscle is a syncytium
Depolarization passes from one cardiac
muscle cell to the next because
. K+ rapidly diffuses out of the cell
Cell membrane repolarization
occurs when
. Striations
b. Intercalated discs
c. Branching
Cardiac muscle
cells have
Desmosomes
Gap junctions
Intercalated discs contain
Calcium pumps
ATP
To move calcium back into the
sarcoplasmic reticulum requires
Increases flow of Ca++ into the sarcomeres
Increases myocardial contractility
The sympathetic nervous system
Inward diffusion of Ca++
Depolarization of the cardiac pacemaker is caused by
. Decreases the flow of Ca++ into pacemaker cells
Slows the heart rate
The parasympathetic nervous system
Outward diffusion of K+
Repolarization of the cardiac pacemakeer is caused by
Just before the ventricles
The atria contract
Purkinje fibers __4__
b. His bundle __3__
c. Pacemaker ___2_
d. AV node __1__
Put in order of action
potential conduction
Sarcomere contraction __3___
b. Inflow of calcium __2__
c. Inflow of sodium _1__
Put in order of
occurrence
Ventricle depolarization
The R-wave of the
EKG is caused by
Atrial depolarization
The P-wave of the EKG
is caused by
Action potentials __1__
b. Conduction system ____2_
c. Sarcomere contraction __5_
d. Myocardial cells _3___
e. Action potentials __4___
Put in order
Increases Ca++ inflow to the pacemaker
Increases Ca+ inflow to the sarcomeres
The sympathetic nervous system
Myocardial repolarization
The T-wave of an EKG is
caused by
Increases cardiac contractility
Increases cardiac output
Increases heart rate
The sympathetic nervous system
. Purkinje fibers ___3_
b. AV node 1___
c. Muscle cells _2__
Put in order of increasing
action potential speed
(slowest first)
Outflow of K+ ___3
b. Inflow of Na+ _1___
c. Depolarization __2__
d. Repolarization __4_
Put in order of
occurrence
The ventricles do not fill completely
Atrial fibrillation decreases
cardiac output because
a. Left and right ventricles_4___
b. Inter ventricular septum ___3_
c. Right atrium __1__
d. Left atrium ___2_
Place in order of depolarization
Begins with the pacemaker
The cardiac conduction system
Raise your eyebrows
Frontal Epicranius
Flex knee
Hamstrings
bite down
Masseter
pucker up
Orbicularis oris
touch ear to shoulder
Sternocleidomastoid
raise shoulders
Trapezius
extend upper arm at shoulder
Deltoid
flex upper arm at shoulder
Pectoralis Major
extend lower arm at elbow
Triceps
flex lower arm at elbow
Biceps
extend fingers
Extensor digitorum
do a sit up
Rectus abdominis
flex your upper leg
Psoas major
extend hip
Gluteus maximus
kick from your knee
Quadriceps
raise foot
Anterior tibial
stand on toes
Gastrocnemius