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29 terms

Major Hormones Associated with the Human Reproductive System

Major Hormones Associated with the Human Reproductive System
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gonad hormones
Male: testosterone
Female: estrogen; progesterone
androgens
male sex hormones
testosterone
a potent androgenic hormone produced chiefly by the testes. Functions: 1) stimulate spermatogenesis at puberty; 2) necessary for the growth, form, and function of maintenance of sexual behavior; 3) promote the normal development and maintenance of sexual behavior 4) promote development of the secondary sex characteristics at puberty
estrogen
hormone produced by the ovaries; promotes female secondary sex characteristics. Functions: 1) Necessary for the growth, form and function of the female reproductive tract. 2) Promote development of the secondary sex characteristics at puberty. 3) Involved in the female reproductive cycle (menstrual cycle)
progesterone
produced and secreted by the corpus luteum. the corpus luteum forms in the follicle in the ovary immediately after ovulation. known as the "pregnancy maintainer." High levels will "keep" the endometrium intact, thus menstruation does not occur. Also will "block" the formation of a ovum/egg/oocyte in the ovary by inhibiting the anterior pituitary production of FSH since pregnancy has occurred. This hormone is essentially the "active" ingredient in birth control pills.
progesterone
known as the "pregnancy maintainer." High levels will "keep" the endometrium intact, thus menstruation does not occur.
progesterone
will "block" the formation of a ovum/egg/oocyte in the ovary by inhibiting the anterior pituitary production of FSH since pregnancy has occurred. This hormone is essentially the "active" ingredient in birth control pills.
FSH and LH
What two hormones are associated with affecting the ovary?
estrogen and progesterone
What two hormones have the most effect on the uterus?
enzymes
hormones are ________; have a production site, travel to another location and have an effect on a target
Oxytocin and GnRh's
What are two major examples of hypothalamus produced hormones in females?
GnRH's
What is a major examples of hypothalamus produced hormones in males?
Oxytocin
produced by the hypothalamus but stored and released by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Functions 1)Cause the smooth muscle of the uterus contract forcefully during labor. 2)Stimulate the release of milk from mammary glands when baby begins to nurse.
GnRH's
(in females) Function: "travel" to the anterior lobe of the pituitary and cause the release of the gonadotrophins
GnRH's
(in males) Function: "travel" to the anterior lobe of the pituitary and cause the release of the gonadotrophins
Prolactin and GnRH's (FSH, LH)
What are two major examples of pituitary gland produced hormones in females?
FSH and LH
What are two major examples of pituitary gland produced hormones in males?
Prolactin
produced and secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary. Function 1) causes the mammary glands to produce milk (lactation)
GnRH's
(Produced by the pituitary gland in females) These hormones "travel" to the ovaries. Remember the GnRH's from the hypothalamus cause these to be released. Two major examples of the gonadotrphis: FSH and LH
FSH
(follicle stimulating hormone) Functions: 1)Stimulate egg/ovum/oocyte to develop in the follicle of the ovary 2) Trigger production of estrogen
LH
(lutenizing hormone)(in females) Function: 1) Stimulate ovulation. 2) Stimulate the formation of the corpus luteum in the follicle immediately after ovulation
LH
(in males)(produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary)(GnRH's) Function: Stimulate the production of testosterone in the interstitial cells within the testes
FSH
(in males)(produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary)(GnRH's) Function: Stimulate sperm production in the seminiferous tubules within the testes
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress
kidneys
The adrenal glands are located next to the ______. Produced in both male and female. Function: 1) Produce very small amounts of gonad hormones (testosterone and estrogen).
HCG
What is one embryo produced hormone?
HCG
produced by the membrane around the embryo after implanation in the uterus. Function: 1) This hormone "communicates" with the corpus luteum in the follicle that pregnancy and implantation have occurred. This "communication" will keep the corpus leteum from disintegrating and the corpus luteum will continue to produce progesterone and thus pregnancy will be maintained (no menstruation or new follicular development). is what is tested for in the urine in pregnancy tests.
1/3
Fertilization occurs in the upper ____ of the oviduct.
lubrication, insulation, buffer, food/nutrients
3 glands provide