Human Biology-Blood

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circulatory system
Consists of the heart, the blood vessels, and the blood that circulates through them.
blood
A specialized connective tissue that consists of specialized cells and cell fragments suspended in a watery solution of molecules and ions.
red blood cells (RBCs)
Transport oxygen to the body tissues; transport carbon dioxide away from tissues. Also called erythrocytes.
white blood cells (WBCs)
Defend the body against invading organism, abnormal cells. Larger than red blood cells, and are more diverse in structure and function. The two main categories are: granular leukocytes (granulocytes) and granular leukocytes (agranulocytes).
platelets
Take part in blood clotting as part of the body's defense mechanisms. Derived from megakaryocytic, which are large cells derived from stem cells in the bone marrow.
water
The primary constituent of blood plasma (90%).
electrolytes (ions)
Sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, hydrogen, magnesium, etc. Ions contribute to the control of cell function and volume, to the electrical charge across cells, and to the function of excitable cells (nerve and muscle). All ions must be kept at their normal concentrations for homeostasis to occur.
proteins
The largest group of solutes in plasma. Albumins maintain blood volume and transport electrolytes, hormones, and wastes. Globulins serve as antibodies and transport substances. clotting proteins contribute to blood clotting.
hormones
Chemical messenger molecules that provide information needed to regulate specific body functions. Insulin, growth hormones, testosterone, estrogen, etc.
gases
Oxygen is needed for metabolism; carbon dioxide is a waste product metabolism. Both are dissolved in plasma as well as carried by RBCs.
nutrients and wastes
Transported by blood throughout the body. Glucose, urea, and many others.
hemoglobins
Oxygen-binding proteins in the blood that carry oxygen and sometimes carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular mechanism, through the body.
oxyhemoglobins
Hemoglobins with four oxygen molecules attached.
deoxyhemoglobin
Hemoglobins that have given up their oxygen molecules.
hemocrit
The percentage of blood that consists of red blood cells.
stem cells
Cells found in red bone marrow that produce red blood cels.
macrophages
Large cells in the liver and spleen that surround, engulf, and digest old and damaged RBCs removed from the circulatory system.
phagocytosis
The process of macrophages surrounding, engulfing, and digesting old and damaged RBCs.
erythropoietin
A cell that is transported in the blood to the red bone marrow where it stimulates stem cells to produce more red blood cells.
blood doping
The act of injecting erythropoietin that many athletes use to increase RBC production and thus their oxygen-carrying capacity.
neutrophils
The most abundant type of granular leukocyte (WBC)(accounts for about 60% of WBCs), which are the first WBCs to combat infection. Surround and engulf foreign cells, especially targeting bacteria and fungi. Name means "neutral-loving," referring to the fact that their granules do not significantly absorb either a red or blue stain.
eosinophils
Relatively small group of granular leukocytes (WBCs) (2-4%) that a) defend the body against large parasite such as worms (too large to engulf, rather they are bombarded with digestive enzymes) and b) release chemicals that moderate the safety of allergic reactions. (Names for tenancy to stain readily with an acidic red stain called eosin).
basophils
The rarest granular leukocytes (WBCs) (0.5%) (named for tendency to stain readily with basic blue stains). The granules in basophils contain histamine which initiates an inflammatory response (swelling, itching, redness, etc.)
monocytes
Agranular leukocytes that are the largest WBCs and filter out of the bloodstream and take up residence in body tissues.
lymphocytes
Agranular leukocytes that make up about 30% of circulating WBCs and are found in the bloodstream, tonsils, spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus gland. 2 types: B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes (B cells and T cells). B cells give rise to plasma cells that produce antibodies-specialized proteins that defend against microorganisms and other foreign invaders. T cells target and destroy specific threats such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells.
hemostasis
The natural process of stopping the flow or loss of blood.
antigen
A nonself cell protein that stimulates the immune system of an organism to defend the organism.
antibody
An opposing protein produced by the immune system to combat antigens.
Rh factor
A type of red blood cell surface antigen.
blood poisoning
An infection of blood plasma caused when microorganisms invade the blood, overwhelm its defenses, and multiply rapidly in blood plaza.
mononucleosis
A contagious viral infection in blood and lymph tissues caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Called mononucleosis because it makes the lymphocytes enlarge to resemble the monocytes.
anemia
A general term for reduction in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
iron-deficiency anemia
Caused when hemoglobin cannot be synthesized properly because the body is deficient in iron.
hemorrhagic anemia
Anemia due to blood loss caused by injury, bleeding ulcers, excessive menstrual flow, and even certain parasites.
pernicious anemia
Caused by deficiency of vitamin B12 absorption by the digestive tract.
hemolytic anemia
The result of rupture (lysis) or early destruction of RBCs usually caused by sickle-cell disease, an inherited disorder in which the RBCs take on an abnormal sickle shape when the oxygen concentration is low.
leukemia
Uncontrolled production of immature or abnormal WBCs which crowds out the production of normal WBCs, RBCs, and platelets and thereby interferes with organ functions. Refers to any of the several types of blood cancer.
multiple myeloma
Uncontrolled division/production of abnormal plasma cells. Another form of cancer. Interferes with the production of other antibodies.
thrombocytopenia
A reduction in the number of platelets in the blood. Can occur for a number of reasons such as viral infection, anemia, leukemia, other blood disorders, exposure to X-rays or radiation, and even as a reaction to certain drugs.
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