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The ability to receive and respond to a stimulus.


A smooth, sustained muscle contraction resulting from high-frequency stimulation.

Intent period

Period of time between stimulation and the onset of muscle contraction.

T tubules

Extensions of muscle cells plasma membrane (sarcolemma) that protrudes deeply into a muscle cells.


The smallest contractile unit of muscle; contains myofilaments, composed mainly of contractile proteins, actin, and myosin.


A bundle of muscle cells bound together by connective tissue.

Articular capsule

Double-layered capsule composed of an outer fibrous capsule lined by a synovial membrane; encloses the joint cavity of a synovial joint.


A joint in which the bones are connected by fibrocartilage.


A joint in which the bones are united by hyaline cartilage.


A joint in which the bones are united by a ligament or a sheet of fibrous tissue.


a completely ossified joint; a fused joint.


A freely movable joint; also called a synovial joint.


A slightly movable joint.


Immovable joint.


A joint; point where two bones meet.

Appositional growth

Type of growth where all bones grow in thickness.

Alkaline phosphatase

What enzyme encourages deposit of calcium salts within the osteoid.


bone-destroying cells that contain lysosomes and phagocytic vacuoles.

Sesamoid bone

A special type of short bone embedded within a tendon or a joint capsule.


Unmineralized bone matrix


The structural and functional nit of compact bone; also called a Haversian system.


Dense connective tissue covering a bone.

Epiphyseal plate

Plate of hyaline cartliage at the junction of the diaphysis and epiphysis that provides for growth in length of a long bone.


The ends of a long bone, attached to the shaft.


The elongated shaft of a long bone.


Affecting muscle contraction or having an affect on the force of muscle contraction.

Langerhan's cells

Cells that arise from the bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis within the stratum spinosum.

Smooth muscle

Spindle-shaped cells w/ central nuclei; cells arranged closely to form sheets; no striations. Located mostly in the walls of hollow organs. Functions to propel substances or objects (foodstuffs, urine, a baby), along internal passageways.

Cardiac muscle

Branching, striated, generally uninucleate cells that interdigitate at specialized junctions (intercalated discs). Located in the walls of the heart. Functions to contract; propels blood into the circulation; is controlled involuntarily.

Skeletal muscle

Long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells; obvious striations. Locate din skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally to skin. Function is voluntary movement; locomotion;manipulation of the environment; facial expression. Voluntary control.

Bone (osseous tissue)

Has a hard, calcified matrix containing many collagen fiber; osteocytes lie in lacunae. Very well vascularized. Located in bones. Functions to support and protect (by enclosure); provides levers for the muscles to act upon; stores calcium and other minerals and fat; marrow inside the bones is the site for blood cell formation.

Elastic cartilage

Similar to hyaline cartilage, but more elastic fibers in matrix. Located in the external ear (pinna); epiglottis, Functions to maintain the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility.


Matrix similar but less firm those in hyaline cartilage; collagen fibers predominate; ligament-like. Located in intervertebral discs; pubic symphysis; discs of knee joints. Has tensile strength w/ability to absorb compressive shock.

Hyaline cartilage

Amorphous but firm matrix; collagen fibers form an imperceptible network; chondroblasts produce the matrix and when mature (chondrocytes) lie in lacunae. Forms most of embryonic skeleton, covers ends of long bones in joint cavities; forms cartilages of nose, trachea, and larynx. Supports and reinforces; stands up to wear and tear; has resident cushioning properties; resists compressive stress.

Elastic protective tissue

Same as for other dense connective tissues, but predominant fiber type is elastin. Found in walls of the aorta, some parts of trachea and bronchi; forms the vocal cords and the ligaments connecting the vertebrae. Provides durability w/ stretch.

Dense irregular connective tissue

Primarily irregularly arranged collagen fibers; some elastic fibers; major cell type is the fibroblast. Located in the dermis of the skin; submucosa of digestive tract; fibrous capsules of organs and of joints; fascia. Able to withstand tension exerted in many directions; provides structural strength.

Dense regular connective tissue

Has primarily parallel collagen fibers; a few elastin fibers; major cell type is the fibroblast. Found in tendons, most ligaments, aponeuroses. Functions to attach muscles to bones or to muscles; attach bones to bones; withstands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction.

Recticular connective tissue

Has network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance; reticular cells predominate. Found in liver, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen. Fibers form a soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types; some are phagocytic and play a role in body protection.

Adipose tissue

Matrix is as areolar, but very sparse; closely packed adipocytes or fact cells, have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplet. Found under the skin; around the kidneys and eyeballs; in bone and w/in abdomen; in breasts. Provides reserve food fuel; insulates against heat loss; supports and protects organs.

Areolar connective tissue

Type of tissue with gel-like matrix with all three fiber types; cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and some WBCs. Widely distributed under epithelia of body, e.g., forms lamina propria of mucus membranes; packages organs; surrounds capillaries. Functions to wrap and cushion organs; its macrophages phagocytize bacteria; play important role in inflammation; holds and conveys connective tissue fluid.


Type of connective tissue (embryonic); is gel-like ground substances containing fine fibers; star-shaped. Found primarily in the embryo, and gives rise to all other connective tissue types.

Ground substances

An amorphous material that fills the space between the cells and contains the fibers. It is composed of interstitial fluids, glycoprotein, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) a diverse group of large, negatively charged polysaccharides.


Introduced into or occurring in the space under the arachnoid membrane of the brain or spinal cord.


An enveloping case or sheath of an anatomical part.

What is the T system of the sarcolemma?

The T system is successive groupings of the three membraneous structures terminal cisterna, T tubule, terminal cisterna. They receive nerve stimulus and provides inlets through which glucose, oxygen, and various ions can be brought into muscle cells.

What is the major role of the sarcoplasmic recticulum?

Regulate intracellular levels of ionic calcium.

Who proposed the sliding filament theory of contraction?

Hugh Huxley (1954)

Latent period

The period between action potential generation and the beginning of mechanical activity, or muscle cell shortening. It is several millions long.


Major muscle protein in the thin filament that is actually a complex of three polypeptides. One of these polypeptides (Tn1) binds to actin; another (TnT) binds to tropomyosin and helps it position an action; the third (TnC) binds calcium ions.


Spontaneous contractions of individual motor units in a muscle, causing a visible twitching or dimpling of the overlying skin' may start and stop for no apparent reason,but may reflect extreme muscle irritation or degenerative nerve system disease.


Region of the palm or base of thumb

Prime mover

Muscle that bears the major responsibility for affecting a particular movement; agonist.


Muscle that reverses, or opposes, the action of another muscle.


Muscle that aides the action of a prime mover by effecting the same movement or by stabilizing joints across which the prime mover acts to prevent undesirable movements.


Muscle that immobilizes one or more bones, allowing other muscles to act from a stable base.


Covers forehead and dome of skull; no bony attachments. Point of origin; galea aponeurotica. Point of insertion: skin of eyebrows and root of nose. With aponeurosis fixed, raises the eyebrows; antagonist of obicularus oculi. Nerve supply: cranial nerve 12.


Overlies base of occiput; by pulling on the galea, fixes origin of frontalis. Point of origin- occipital bone, point of insertion-galea aponeurotica. Action: fixes aponeurosis and pulls scalp posteriorly. Inervated by cranial nerve 12.

Corrugator supercili

Small muscle; activity associate with that of orbicularis oculi; O: arch of frontal bone above nasalbone; Insertion: skin of eyebrow. Action: draws eyebrows together; wrinkles skin of forehead vertically (as in frowning.)
Cranial Nerve 12.

Orbicularis oris

Thin, flat sphincter muscle of eyelid; surrounds rim of the orbit; paralysis results in drooping of lower eyelid and spilling of tears. Origin-frontal and maxillary bones and ligaments around orbit. Insertion: tissue of eyelid. Action: protects eyes from intense light and injury; various parts can be activated.


Muscle pair extending diagonally from corner of mouth to cheekbone. Origin: zygomatic bone. Insertion: skin and muscle at corner of mouth. Action: raises lateral corners of the mouth upward (smiling). Cranial nerve 12


Slender muscles running beneath and laterally to zygomaticus. Origin: lateral fascia associated with massater muscles. Insertion: skin at angle of mouth. Action: draws corner of liplaterally; tenses lips; synergist of zygomaticus. CN 12.


Enzyme that hydrolyzes ATP.

What are the three pathways by which ATP is generated during muscle activity?

Interaction of ADP w/ creatine phosphate
Aerobic respiration
Anaerobic respiration

Which metabolic pathway does smooth muscle use for ATP synthesis?

Anaerobic pathways

What connective tissue proteins are synthesized by smooth muscle cells?

Collagen and elastin

What is found in the sarcoplasm of a muscle fiber that is not found in other cell types?

Large amounts of stored glycogen and myoglobin.


A bundle of muscle cells bound together by connective tissue.

Sarcoplasmic recticulum

The smallest contractile uit of muscle; contains myofilaments composed of mainly of contractile proteins, actin, and myosin.

Motor unit

A motor neuron and all the cells it stimulates.

Isotonic contraction

A contraction in which muscle tension remains constant and the muscle shortens.


A rodlike bundle of contractile filaments found in muscle cells; composed of individual sarcomeres.

Levator labii superioris

Thin muscle between obicularis oris and inferior eye margin. Origin: zygomatic bone and infraorbital margin of maxilla. Insertion: skin and muscle of upper lip. Action: opens lips, raises and furrows upper lip; flares nostril as in disgust). CN 12.

Depressor anguli oris

Small muscle lateral to depressor labii inferioris. Origin: body of mandible below incisors. Insertion: skin and muscle at angle of mouth below insertion of zygomaticus. Action: Zygomaticus antagonist; draws corners of mouth downward and laterally (as in "tragedy mask" grimace). CN 7


Thin, horizontal cheek muscle; principal muscle of cheek; deep to masseter. Origin: molar region of maxilla and mandible. Insertion: orbicularis oris; fibers form deep portion of lips. Action: Draws corner of mouth laterally; compresses cheek. CN 7.


Principal bone building cells; they synthesize collagenous fibers and bone matrix and promote mineralization during ossification. they become trapped in their own matrix and develop into osteocytes that maintain bone tissue.

Nutrient foramina

Small openings in bone that permit the entry of vessels for the nourishment of living tissue.

Where are the principal sites of hematopoiesis?

Red bone marrow of the sternum, vertebrae, portions of the ox coxae, and proximal epiphyses of the femora and humeri.

Loose bodies

Small pieces of bone or cartilage within a joint capsule; usually reflect joint trauma or the wearing away of part of the articular cartilage, which exposes the surface of bone beneath, causing it to die or separate; symptoms are painful catching or locking of the joint; unless surgically removed, promote osteoarthritis.

Give examples of multiaxial joints

Ball and socket-shoulder and hip joints.

Give examples of biaxial joints

Condyloid joints- radiocarpal joints, metacarpaphalangeal, atlantoccipital joint

Saddle-carpometacarpal joints of thumbs

Give examples of uniaxial joints

1. Hinge -elbow, interphalangeal, knee joints.
2. Pivot joints- joint between the axis and atlas- proximal radioulnar joint.

Give examples of plane joints

Intertarsals, intercarpal, sternoclavicular and joints between vertebral articular processes.


A fibrous joint represented solely by the articulation of a tooth with its bony alveolar socket.


Flattened fibrous sacs lined w/ synovial membrane and containing a thin film of synovial fluid Common is sites where ligaments, muscles, skin, or muscle tendons rub against bone.


To from the kind of joint or connection that allows movement.

Synovial joints

Joints which separated bones by a fluid-filled cavity. Permits substantial freedom of movement, and all synovial joints are freely moveable diarthrotic joints.


Large, rounded articulating surface.


Prominent, rounded articulating end of bone.


Flattened or shallow articulating surface.


Any bony extension.


Smal, rounded process.


Large, roughened process.


Massive process found only on the femur.


Sharp, slender process.


Narrow, ridge-like projection.


Projection above a condyle.


Shallow depression.


Groove that accommodates a vessel, nerve, or tendon.


Narrow, slit-like opening.


Tubelike passageway.


Deep pit or socket.


Rounded opening through a bone.


Cavity or hollow space.


Small pit or depression.

Red bone marrow of the sternum, vertebrae, portions of the ossa coxae, and the proximal epiphyses of the femora and humeri.

Principal site of hematopoiesis.

True in that linear bone growth does cease as the epiphyseal lines replace the epiphyseal plates and ossification occurs between the epiphyses and diaphyses. However, diametric bone growth and enlargement of bony processes occur at any time to accommodate an increase in body mass.

T or F. Bone growth ceases as a person reaches physical maturity.

C. Marfan's syndrome

This genetic disorder causes a defect of the connective tissue.

A. Turner's syndrome
B. Cystic fibrosis
C. Marfan's syndrome
D. Hemophilia
E. Huntington's chorea

There are 206 bones in the human body. Axial skeleton contains 80 bones and the appendicular skeleton includes 126 ones.

How many bones are in the human body?


Portion of long bone that connects the epiphysis to the diaphysis. In growing bone, this region is referred to as the epiphyseal plate or growth plate. In mature bone, this region is called the epiphyseal line.

Medullary cavity

This is the hollow space of the diaphysis. Contains fatty yellow bone marrow.


Lines the medullary cavity and contains osteogenic and osteoclast bone cells.

The formation of bone can happen in one of two ways:
1. Intramembranous ossification-refers to the formation of bone within fibrous connective tissue.
2. Endochondral ossification-refers to the formation of bone in hyaline cartilage.

In which ways can we form bone?

The flat bones of the skull, mandible, and fontanels.

What are examples of bones that ossified through intramembranous ossification?

The long bones of the upper and lower extremities.

What are examples of bones that ossified through endochondral ossification?

Zone of resting cartilage
Zone of proliferating cartilage
Zone of hypertrophic cartilage
Zone of calcified cartilage

What are the stages or zones that lead to bone growth in length?

Synchondroses, symphyses, and synovial joints.

What are examples of cartilagenous joints?

Ball and socket joints
Hinge joints
Pivot joints
Saddle joints
Condyloid joint
Gliding joint

What are examples of synovial joints?


This is a decrease in bone mass due to a demineralization of calcium. It is more common in women, especially after menopause. Because of the decrease in bone quantity, the bones may become brittle. This can cause multiple compression fractures of the vertebrae, leading to humpback (hyperkyphosis).


Softening of the bones as a result of a vitamin D deficiency in adults. Vitamin D is needed for normal calcium absorption. Pseudofractures may result.


Softening of the bones as a result of vitamin D deficiency in children. Condition can result in multiple costochondral bumps called the rachitic rosary and also a protrusion of the skin called pigeon breast or pectus carinatum.

Osteitis deformans

Also known as Paget's disease and is an increase in bone density. This disease affects the spine, skull, and pelvis of geriatric patients and is idiopathic.

Osteitis fibrosa cystica

Also known as "Von Reckinghausen's disease of the bone," this disease causes osteolytic lesions of the bone.


This condition is an increase in bone density that occurs because of the inactivity of osteoclasts.


Also known as the "disease of the kings," this is a defect in the way purines are metabolized. This results in uric acid crystals building up in the joints, especially the metatarsophalangeal joint of the big toe. This is called podagia.

Osteoid osteoma

Benign bone tumor that commonly occurs in the neck of the femur, the distal end of the femur, and the proximal tibia. More common in males between the ages of 10 to 25.


Benign tumor that occurs in the skull, the bones of the face, and the paranasal sinus.


Benign tumor made of cartilage and is most commonly found on the hands and feet.


Benign tumor occurs at the distal end of the femur and the proximal end of the tibia, and is most common in males under the age of 25.

Giant cell tumor

Benign tumor that occurs at the distal end of the femur and the proximal tibia. These tumors most commonly occur in women between the ages of 20 and 40. Giant cell tumors look like soap bubbles on X-ray.


This type of malignant bone tumor usually affects the proximal and distal femur, the proximal tibia, and the distal humerus. Osteosarcomasa are very malignant, with the capacity to metastasize to lung tissue. These primary bone tumors are the most common and usually affect people between the ages of 20 and 40, although they can occur at any age.


This is a malignant tumor of cartilage. Tumors of this type are most often primary and occur in people who have multiple endochondromas (benign cartilage tumors). These tumors normally affect the vertebrae, bones of the pelvis, ribs, femur, and tibia.

Ewing's sarcoma

This malignant bone tumor is the most common primary lesion between the ages of 10 and 20 and affects males more than females. These tumors affect the diaphysis of the long bones in the lower extremity.

Multiple myeloma

This is a malignancy of plasma cells. Multiple myeloma result sin hypercalcemia as a result of the destruction of bone tissue. This destruction creates "punched-out lesions" in the axial skeleton. This disease is most common in males ages 50 to 70.


A noninflammatory type of joint disease. This condition is most commonly related to or the result of wear and teat or the joint caused by repetitive stress. Presents with a decrease in joint space and bone "lipping and spurring."

O.A. presents with pain and stiffness in the morning after awakening and after rest, usually relieved by activity.

What are the signs and symptoms associated with OA?

Rheumatoid arthritis

A systemic, chronic inflammatory form of arthritis of autoimmune origin. Starts as an inflammation of the synovial joint linings, with edema, hyperplasia, and then hypertrophy of the synovial joint lining. Granulation tissue forms and erodes adjacent bone tissue (pannus).

R.A. presents as pain and swelling, especially in the proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints of the upper and lower extremities and the knees. Ulnar deviation due to joint destruction and ligament laxity is a common sign.

What are the signs and symptoms of R.A.?

Ankylosing spondylitis

Also known as Marie-Strumpell disease and is a systemic inflammatory disease mainly males between the ages of 10 and 20.

A.S. commonly presents as sacroiliac joint and spine pain, especially at night, and pain int he larger joints of the extremities. If untreated, kyphosis is common.

What are the signs and symptoms associated with A.S.?

Rieter's syndrome

An inflammatory disease that is usually the result of a venereal disease or intestinal disease.

Rieter's syndrome presents with inflammation of the urethra, eyes, and joints of the lower extremity.

What are the signs and symptoms of Rieter's syndrome?

Avascular necrosis

A nonneoplastic disease of bone that is caused by a lack of blood supply to the bone. This condition can be the result of trauma, embolisms, or even sickle cell anemia. In children, if this is present on the femur head, the femur head will not develop properly. Instead of having a normal round ball-shaped femur head, the head will be shallow and flat. This condition is called Legg-Calve-Perthes disease.

Osteogenesis imperfecta

Also known as brittle bone disease, is a congenital abnormality caused by a defect in the production of collagen. It is especially serious in infants because the baby can be born with multiple fractures.

1. Tertiary or neurosyphilis
2. Springomyelia
3. Diabetic neuropathy

What causes Charcot's joints?


A disease affecting the central canal of the spinal cord. This can be the result of a cyst, congenital malformation, infection, tumor, or trauma.

Colles' fracture

Fracture of the distal radius bone of the forearm, causing a posterior displacement of the distal fragment.

Smith's fracture

Fracture of the distal radius of the forearm with an anterior displacement of the distal fragment.

Chauffeur's fracture

Also known as "backfire fracture" is an impacted or avulsion fracture of the styloid process of the radius.

Clay shoveler's fracture

Also known as a "coal miner's fracture, " is an avulsion fracture of the spinous processes of C6 or T1. This fracture is named for the fractures that would occur in workers who had repeated stress on the cervical region caused by shoveling. Trauma would also cause these fractures.

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