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Final exam history
Terms in this set (12)
After the brutality that the Congolese suffered because King Leopold,in 1958 a new national liberation movement arose. The leader of the National Congolese Movement was Patrice Lumumba. In 1960 Congo got its independence and among 60different political parties Lumumba won the election and become the first prime minister of Congo.after the election the other parties decided to break away and the nation started to fragment apart.for Lumumba unity within the nation was peculiar and he tried to hold it together! To stop the secession he sent the military who needed weapons. Even if he wasn't a communist he bought the weapons from the Soviet Union. In 1961 theCIA with the help of lumumba's military killed Lumumba. The us concern was that he was shifting towards the Su since he asked them for the weapons.
After the death of Lumumba a military dictatorship took over. The head of it was the military dictator Joseph Mobutu (1965-1997).the US liked Mobutu because he was able to stop the civil war;hold the country together and made the promise to defeat the communism.contrariwise the Alliance of democrats forces, led by Kabila didn t like him at all and wanted to get rid of Mobutu.Kabila got together with all the other tribes and overthrown Mobutu that left the country.
Rwandan Patriotic Front
1962 Rwanda gets its independence from Belgium.the situation gets really complicated because the hatred ideas the Belgium had spread among the two
major tribes. The Hutu represented the 80%of the population and the Tutsi the 15%.during the presidency of the Hutu Habyarimana a big community of Tutsi fearing the policy if Hutu Power they flee the country. (1970/80) in Congo, where they are regrouping they form the Rwandan patriotic front.they are basically training themselves in order to go back in Rwanda and get the country back in their hands.in 1990 the RPF stormed back and tried
To overthrow the Habyrimana government starting a civil war.in 1994 the RPF are close to win the war. With the unclear blowing up of the plane with in it the president Habyrimana a massive genocide happened and for three months 800.000 Tutsi were killed guilty,according to the Hutu military, of have killed the president. Eventually the RPF won the civil war and they still run the country.
In 1961 he became the democratic president of Brazil.he introduced new reforms. for the land,he did a redistribution of the land taking away the surplus from the wealthy in favor of the peasants. He built new infrastructure that would make life baetter(schools,roads, irrigation system).he believed that the richer should pay more taxes and that the domestic products should be protect and push so, he introduced tariffs to increase the protectionism. A reform that cost him his presidential chair is the political reform. En fact he legalized the communist parties in Brazil thinking that wasn't fair to chose one part over the other in the Cold War affair. These reforms didn't find the favor of the military,wealthy people and US.in 1964 the CIA overthrow him
Chile was the main source of copper for the US. When Chilean politics moved to the left US wasn't happy about having another Latin American country in the edge of communism.1970 Allende was elected through open election as first Marxist president of a Latin American country. He adopted a policy of nationalization of industry and collectivization. Under his presidency the inflation of the nation ran out of control and there had been a drop in the international price of copper.in 1973 the Air Force bombed the presidential palace and Allende killed himself.
1971 Amin staged a coup overthrowing the dictatorship of Milton Obote in Uganda. He forcefully expelled Several minority tribes, act that detrimental the economy since many of those Asian were merchants and professionals. He resorted to torture,Public execution and assasination. He was overthrown in1979 by a force from Tanzania which then installed a civilian government.
He is a component of the large Hutu tribe and in 1973 became president. Because the feeling of hatre that the belgium had instilled between the two major Ruanda's tribe when he went to power he became the policy of Hutu power in which he is going to show the Tutsi the virtue and superiority of the Hutu. His government was overthrown in 1990 and a civil war started between the Hutu and the Rwandan patriotic front. When the war got close to the end and the RPF was winning a plane with Habyarimana in it blew out the Hutu blame Tutsi and a genocide started in which 800.000 Tutsi were killed.
The green revolution
After WWII India was a populate nation, very poor!indian government aimed for the population control and increase food production.the increased food production was unevenly distributed. Reasons for this inefficiency were:small size farms, shortage in farming machinery, lack of irrigation, malnutrition and disease.in India, as in other agrarian nation a wise discrepancy between the wealthy landowners and the peasants was huge.in the 1965 a development and agricultural mechanization (US sponsored Green Revolution)increased agricultural output in the nation increasing food supply.the green revolution introduced newly developed plants and new farming techniques;these doubled that production of grains.the other side of the coin for the GR was that it benefit mainly the minority of India's farmer the wealthiest.they en fact where the ones able to afford the new seeds irrigation,fertilizes ecc. The rich got richer and the poor poorer.moreover the use of tractors reduced the farm laborers incrementally the unemployed and the migration into he cities.
During the late 20th century Qutb was he mentor of the Arab radicals.he was Egyptian and in 1964 wrote the book the Milestone in which he professed his disgust for the US.in Egypt he was working for the department of education of Egypt.he was sent in the US to study the American education system.in California,in contact with the US culture and society he developed a deep discontent and hate toward the wester culture. Him and exponents of the brotherhood were arrested and hanged by order of the president Nasser.
Great leap forward
After the Chinese revoution and the rise of the communist party(people's rebuic of China),whose leader was mao zedong the question now was how to run the country and industrize it.in 1958 Mao created thr GLF which intent was to transit from agriculture to industrial with a "leap" of 5years the longest.it consisted in getting people to working together to speed the process.the population was reorganizes jn communes(collettve garms).the communes were made up od about 5000/10000 families. Each commune had the responsabitility to grow one particular crop.mao Edong thought the big amount of food could be created in this way. More food was equal increment of factories whose job was to process the food. it was an ambitious plan,never done before anywhere and consequently a big failure. In early 1960a massive inondation destroyed a great part of the communes that lead to an enormous famines period.
Great proletarian cultural revolution
After the biggest failure of the GLF Mao Zedong started to fear to be overthrown.to avoid it he started in 1966 the GPCR in which he accused,for the failure of the GLF the ones that didn't work,believe,trust enough the plan.to so that he sent to re-education centers all the dissident. He published the little red book in which he magnified the communism and it's greatness.china was still very poor and extremely culturally close.
After cia operation Ajax in 1953,in which the shah, Pahlavi got to power and US supported his government.even if the shah introduced the white revolution,an economic reform to help built the economy,built infrastructure etc..the plan didn't satisfied the population because it didn't do anything for the poor.people start to protest against him his white revolution and the too close affiliation with the US.in the 1960 groups of rebellion rose against the King.the shah created the Savak(secret police)to stop the rebellion but instead the police persecuted everybody without distinction.very upset with the shah,his affiliation with the US and the fact that the shah wasn't a very religion person is the religion leaders Khomeini.he public criticized the shah and his sumptuous way to live at the expense of the Iranian.1979 the Iranian revolution began and the shah was overthrown a US embassy was stormed and 53 Americans was hostage.the Iranian hostage crisis.khomeini took control of the nation turning it a strict Muslim nation.currently Iran has a parliament but above it there are the Council of Guardians made up of lawyers and religious figure.at the top sit the supreme leader(hajatolla)
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