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sulfur dioxide
comes from burning fossil fuels with high sulfur content, is an important precursor to acid rain
carbon monoxide
has a stronger affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen has
radon
comes from rocks below house foundations and has been implicated as the cause of as much as 15 percent of lung cancer cases.
Methane
a greenhouse gas, that is flammable and produced by landfills
carbon dioxide
the major contributor to greenhouse effect, regulated by the Kyoto conference
ozone
stratospheric importance in protecting us from UV radiation. Destroyed by chlorofluorocarbons. Causes lung damage and damage to plant tissue in the troposphere. It is formed by photochemical reactions
CFC's
chlorofluorocarbons give off a chlorine in the stratosphere and the Cl attaches to free oxygen to deplete the ozone layer
Main environmental effects of ozone depletion are:
lower food-crop production
disruption of marine food chains
increased incidence of skin cancer
reduction of primary productivity in the ocean
Greenhouse gases
methane(CH4), CFC's, carbon dioxide, Nitrous oxide(NOX, N2O)
Most data indicate that the mean global annual temperature has increased by
.5 degrees C
In the models of global warming, the most important factor contributing to an increase in sea level is
the thermal expansion of the oceans
Effects of global warming are:
loss of fertile delta regions for agriculture
change in global patterns of precipitation
extinction of some species that have narrow temperature requirements
increased frequencies of hurricanes
Location where the greatest number of people would be directly affected by global warming-coastlines,
esp. under sea level and small islands.
Greenhouse gases include
carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, nitrous oxides, CFC's
The greenhouse effect
infrared radiation from the earth's surface is absorbed by gases in the atmosphere
Environmental effects of Acid rain
acidification of lakes and soils
erosion of limestone structure,
damage to plant foliage,
respiratory irritation
Rising number of cars have lead to increases in NOX formation
Catalytic converters do remove NOX's and remove CO
Sources of sulfur dioxides:
coal burning power plants
industrial processes that burn coal and oil
Reactions of sulfur dioxide
2SO2 + O2 ----------->2SO3
SO3 + H20 ---------->H2SO4
H2SO4 + 2H20-------> 2H30+ + SO4-2
Remediation and reduction of sulfur dioxide
add lime to acidified lakes
reduce fossil fuel use
burn lower sulfur fuel
install air pollution devise electrostatic precipitator or flue gas desulfurization (scrubbers)
develop alternative energy sources
burn coal more cleanly and efficiently using fluidized bed combustion
Sources of Nitrous Oxides
automobile exhaust
stationary sources of fuel combustion
Oxides of nitrogen include
NO, NO2, N2O
HNO3 +H20---------> H3O+ + NO3-
Reduction and remediation methods of nitrous oxides include
reduction in the use of motor vehicles
increase in the efficiency of motor vehicles
install catalytic converter
reduce use of nitrogen fertilizer
use alternative energy sources
burn coal more cleanly and efficiently using fluidized bed combustion
add lime to acidified lakes
Carbon Monoxides
carbon monoxide reduction technology include catalytic converters
oxygenating fuel additives

carbon monoxide reduces the blood's ability to transport oxygen to tissues
Chemical, Physiological and Ecological factors that are altered by acid rain in and around aquatic habitats
Heavy or toxic metals such as Al, Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe are released into solution at lower pH levels
chemical elements are dissolved and kept in solution at lower pH and leave the lake via outflows.
Increased nitrogen levels from nitric acid stimulate plant growth resulting in an algal bloom and depletion of other soil nutrients
Increased nitrogen levels from nitric acid stimulate plant growth resulting in an algal bloom and a decrease in DO levels to a point out of the range of tolerance
increased death and decomposition result in lower DO levels
reduced photosynthesis leads to reduced DO levels
reproduction rates are reduced
Chemical, Physiological and Ecological factors that are altered by acid rain in and around aquatic habitats
disruption of the food web results from the decline or loss of pH sensitive organisms at various trophic levels
survival of eggs, young, fry or fingerlings is reduced
interferes with respiration, damages gills, and prevents oxygen uptake
causes bone decalcification
disrupts muscle contraction
interferes with enzyme activity
causes tissue damage
Causes of lake acidification
sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere reacts with atmospheric gases to produce sulfuric acid
NOX in atmosphere react with atmospheric gases to produce nitric acid
sulfuric acid and toxic metals leach from mines
Hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid industrial wastes are discharged into the watershed
organic acids enter the lake as a result of the logging process
organic acids and metallic cations in leachate flow into the lake from leaking sanitary landfills
Chemicals such as DDT and PCB's that are used in one region of the Earth can:
circulate in the biosphere and affect organisms in a distant region
Toxic metal pollutants:
Cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury
cadmium
Heavy metal that is toxic found in incinerator ash, released when coal is burned
chromium
toxic heavy metal
lead
toxic metal pollutant that is a neurotoxin that comes from air pollution from burning of leaded gasoline or indoors from lead based paints
mercury
toxic metal pollutant that is a neurotoxin
Acid deposition can be reduced by
reducing the use of fossil fuels
Heavy metals in the municipal sewage sludge would be
the strongest reason not to use it as a fertilizer
Solid Waste Treatment:
Sanitary landfill, incineration, discharge to sewers, streams, and rivers; chemical treatment, biological treatment
Sanitary landfill-
this method is used most frequently to get rid of solid waste in the US today. In this trash and garbage are crushed and covered each day to prevent accumulation of vermin and spread of disease The greatest problem associated with these is leachate contamination of groundwater
incineration
this method of solid waste disposal reduces the volume of waste but could release toxic emissions into the atmosphere
discharge to sewers, streams and rivers-
in this case you are hoping that dilution is the solution. Not a very effective way of getting rid of solid waste.
chemical treatment-
this method is best suited for neutralizing the acidic component of waste
biological treatment-
introduces microorganisms to breakdown hazardous organic compounds. Bioremediation is the reconstruction of an ecological area with the aid of living organisms. Most of these are microbes. An example of environmental remediation would be spraying PCB consuming bacteria on an area that has soil contaminated with PCB's.
Solid waste management; methods in terms of least energy used to most energy used
reduce, reuse, recycle
The single largest component of municipal solid waste is
paper
A. Kinetic energy-
matter in motion has energy
heat flow-
energy is transferred from one object to another as the result of a temperature difference
First Law of thermodynamics-
the amount of energy in an isolated system stays constant
Second law of Thermodynamics-
an energy transformation occurs and results in increased disorder
Major reserve of nitrogen on this planet is
N2 found in the atmosphere
The major reserve of sulfur is
in the rocks in the lithosphere
Most volcanism is associated with
plate boundaries
Approximately 2.5% of the water on Earth is
freshwater (liquid or solid)
The most abundant gas in the earths atmosphere is
N2
Trophic levels of organisms
producers lowest, herbivores (primary consumers), carnivores( secondary consumers)
Habitat fragmentation-
creates small islands of habitat this reduces species diversity, increases the amount of edge habitat, decreases gene flow within species, usually leads to a decrease in the numbers of top carnivores in the population
Organisms have adaptations to acquire energy from their external environment such as
dark, heat absorbing coloration and fangs and claws
biomes
tundra, tropical rain forest, desert
Tundra
Antarctic environment is very fragile and extremely vulnerable to the disturbances that would accompany development in this biome
Tropical Rain Forest
biome with the most biodiversity. Soils do not have many nutrients in them the majority of the nutrients are tied up in the canopy. If the rainforest is removed the soils are depleted of nutrients quickly
Location where there is the greatest biodiversity. remaining- Tropical rainforests of South America.
When you lose diversity, there is an increased
susceptibility to plant diseases
Desert
most of the earth's deserts are approximately 30o latitude north and south because these latitudes are characterized by descending dry air currents
Desertification
is occurring most rapidly along the fringes of the Sahara Desert in Africa since nomadic people who aren't using the land wisely are depleting the soils and turning it into desert
Symbiotic relationships
commensalism, parasitism, mutualism, predation, competition
commensalism
+ 0 like moss growing on a tree
parasitism-
+ - ticks feeding on a deer
mutualism
+ + bees and flowers
predation
lion eating an antelope on the savannah
competition
starling displacing bluebirds
Evolution
is indicated by a population changing not an indiv
Important inorganic compounds include
water and salts
The two major processes involved in the carbon cycle are
photosynthesis and respiration
Both carbon and sulfur have a gaseous stage at some point in their cycle.
Phosphorous does not.
Precambrian era lasted until about 570 million years ago
very little fossil evidence.
Acidity
measured on the pH scale, pH of 4 has 1X10-4 hydrogen ion concentration
turbidity
caused by suspended particles
dissolved oxygen
decreased by the breakdown of organic waste, the major source of dissolved oxygen in the ocean comes from photosynthesis by phytoplankton
hardness
measured by amount of Ca+2 and Mg+2
salinity
amount of dissolved salts especially sodium chloride in a given volume of water
High levels of fecal coliform bacteria in a water source indicates that
the water has been contaminated by untreated human or animal waste
Eutrophication in lakes and streams is accelerated with
nitrates and phosphates
When a pesticide is not metabolized or excreted by an organism, it gets stored in fatty tissue. Over time the organism may accumulate high concentrations of the pesticide. The buildup of such a pesticide in an organisms body is known as
bioaccumulation
Organisms at higher levels on food webs tend to have greater concentrations of bioaccumulated pesticide stored in their bodies than those lower on food webs. The increase in pesticide concentrations as the pesticide passes through successive levels of the food web is known as
biological magnification
Integrated pest management
combines biological cultural and chemical controls that are tailored to the conditions and crops of the individual farm
The greatest amount of water for domestic use in the US is used
flushing the toilet
The greatest amount of water in the world is used in
agricultural processes
Dissolved oxygen goes down after
a point source of pollution is added to a stream or lake.
Point sources of pollution would be
pollution that enters a water source from a particular place like a pipe that comes from a factory, dairy, etc.
Non Point sources of pollution would include:
storm water, acid precipitation, agricultural runoff, residual pesticide runoff
Sand has
the greatest permeability
Clay has
the least permeability
Overgrazing of public land by privately owned livestock is an example of
"tragedy of the commons"
"tragedy of the commons"
was an essay written by Garret Hardin about the abuse of our commons which could be public lands or waters.
coal
largest coal reserves are in China
coal is a
nonrenewable resource
At present rates of consumption we have about 200 years of
coal left
burning coal releases
radioactivity and many toxic metals including lead and mercury.
Petroleum deposit will have varying mixtures of
oil, gas and solid tar-like materials.
At current consumption rates we have about 50 years of
oil left.
Natural Gas
Third largest commercial fuel.
Environmental problems associated with nuclear power plant
meltdown- caused by loss of coolant or fuel rod exposure- the radiation release effects mutations, increase in cancer and death, decrease population, reduced growth rate, fertility rate
wastes and used fuels produced- how do you store dispose and transport
thermal pollution generated from cooling
Environmental problems associated with nuclear power plant
leaks releases of radiation to environment
fuel processing-mining, production enrichment
decommissioning-storage disposal and transport of facility
water use-volume used, intake/output
High level nuclear waste is stored right at the reactor site
the ultimate source of energy for terrestrial ecosystems is
the SUN
Uranium
is considered a nonrenewable energy resource
nuclear fission
- this source produces long-lived hazardous wastes and is nonrenewable
sunlight
the source that is converted directly into electrical energy by photovoltaic cells.
Biomass
the source whose use is a direct cause of deforestation
Clear cutting forests will result in
topsoil depth decrease, water temperature in streams running through the region will increase, volume of streams after rainfall will increase, the frequency of landslides will increase
Floodplains are important to humans historically because
they are fertile, are flat and are close to rivers for transportation
National Parks-
oldest Yellowstone, next Yosemite. these area have multiple roles from providing biological habitat to facilitating human recreation. Roads and buildings can be constructed in these areas
National wildlife refuges
preserves lands and waters for the conservation of fishes, wildlife and plants of the United States. Hunting, fishing and photography are permitted on these lands. Roads are built in these refuges
National Forests
these areas have multiple uses including timber harvest, livestock forage, water resource management, mining, recreation, and habitat for fish and wildlife.
National wilderness preservation areas
only one of the areas described here where road construction, logging, and mining are banned
National Environmental Policy Act( NEPA) of 1969
requires all agencies responsible for a major federal project to file an environmental impact statement-The best way the protect endangered and threatened species is by protecting the habitat.
Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA)
seeks to identify all endangered species and populations and to save as much biodiversity. as possible regardless of its usefulness to humans.
Delaney Clause
an amendment to the federal food, drug and cosmetic act added in 1058 prohibiting the addition of any known cancer causing agents to processed foods drugs or cosmetics.
Safe Drinking Water Act(1974)
requires minimum safety standards for every community water supply.. Contaminants regulated are bacteria, nitrates, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, fluoride, lead, mercury, silver, pesticides
Clean Water Act(1985)
set as a national goal the attainment of fishable and swimable surface waters in the United States. The law says that there will be no net loss of wetlands
Migratory Bird Treaty Act-
this act prevents the destruction of the habitat of non-game migratory bird species
Clean Air Act(1970
mandated the phasing out of open burning thereby reducing the emission of particulates
CITES Treaty
has been helpful in protecting endangered animals and plants by listing those species and products whose international trade is controlled
Wilderness act
any land designated as wilderness is to remain road less and free of development
Bhopal India
a poison gas escaped from Union Carbides pesticide plant killing 1754 and injuring 200,000
Minamata, Japan
mercury contaminated seafood poisoned many in this town. This type of mercury poisoning is called minamata disease,
Love Canal, New York
toxic chemical stored underground leaked into municipal water supply causing cancer in many and eventually lead to the evacuation of town
Chernobyl, Ukraine
meltdown of nuclear power plant
Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania
partial meltdown of reactor core in 1979 . Most of the radioactive material was kept inside the containment building.
Stabilization or reduction of the size of the human population would have the greatest
positive impact on the quality of the natural environment
exponential growth-
growth at a constant rate of increase per unit of time
carrying capacity
the maximum population a specified environment can support over a prolonged period without degrading the environment.
Environmental resistance
factors that tend to reduce population growth rates
70/rate of population growth
doubling time
biotic potential
maximum reproductive rate of an organism
dieback
population crash
Zero population growth is found when
birth rate and death rate are =
The steeper the slope of the line the greater the rate of births or deaths over time
Human Population is most stable in
Japan , the US and some of the European countries
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