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Gravity
Terms in this set (40)
median
the middle number when the numbers are written in numerical order. If n is even, the median is the mean of the two middle numbers
mode
the mode of n numbers is the number or numbers that occur most frequently
range
the difference between the largest number and the smallest number in a set
categorical variables
take on variables that are names or labels ex. color of ball, breed of dog
quantitative variables
numerical, represent a measurable quantity ex. population of a city
univariate data
when a study is conducted that looks at only one variable
bivariate data
when a study is conducted that examines the relationship between two variables
population
a group of people or objects that you want information about
sample
a subset of a population
Unimodal
distributions with one clear peak
simple random sampling
any sampling method that has the following properties
1. the population consists of n objects
2. the sample consists of n/n objects
3. if all possible samples of n objects are equally likely to occur
important benefit of simple random sampling
allows researchers to use statistical methods to analyze sample results
outlier
a value that is much greater than or much less than most of the other values in a data set
center
the middle/median
spread
tells us how much a data sample is scattered, describes the variability of a data set, how the data is spread out, and varies from the mean
symmetry
an attribute used to describe the shape of a data distribution, when graphed, symmetric distribution can be divided at the center so that each half is a mirror image of the other-non-symmetric distribution cannot
bar chart vs histogram
bar chart-made up of columns or rows plotted on a graph, categorical variable
histogram-made up of columns or rows plotted on a graph, quantitative variable
dot plots
a type of graphic display used to compare frequency counts within categories or groups, made up of dots plotted on a graph
stem plots
used to display quantitative data, generally from small data sets (50 or fewer observations). entries on the left are called stems and entries on the right are called leaves
quartiles
divide a rank-ordered data set into four equal parts. The values that divide each part are called the first, second, and third quartiles; Q1, Q2, Q3
Relationship between quartiles and percentiles 1
Q1——>P25——>middle value/median in 1st half of rank-ordered data set
Relationship between quartiles and percentiles 2
Q2——>P50——>median of whole data set
Relationship between quartiles and percentiles 3
Q3——>P75——>median of 2nd half of rank-ordered data set
Relationship between quartiles and percentiles 4
Q2 is median of data set
box plots (box and whisker plot)
A type of graph used to display patterns of quantitative data
-splits the data set into quartile, body consists of a box which goes from the 1st quartile (Q1) to the 3rd quartile (Q3)
-Inside box, which vertical line @ Q2 aka median of the data set
-2 horizontal lines, called whiskers, extend from the front and back of box, front whisker goes from Q1 to the smallest non-outlier in the data set and back whisker goes from Q3 to the largest non-outlier
-If data set includes one or more outliers, they are plotted separately as points on the chart
interquartile range (IQR)
a measure of variability, based on dividing a data set into quartiles. Q3-Q1
skewness (differentiate between skewed left and skewed right)
When they are displayed graphically, some distributions of data have many more observations on one side of the graph than the other.
skewed left
distributions with fewer observations on the left (toward lower values)
skewed right
Distributions with fewer observations on the right (toward higher values)
categorical or quantitative: number of students in a classroom
Discrete numerical
categorical or quantitative: sex of students in a classroom
Categorical
categorical or quantitative: height of students in a classroom
Continuous numerical
categorical or quantitative: temperature in the classroom
Continuous numerical ??
categorical or quantitative: age
Continuous numerical
categorical or quantitative: smoker or not
Categorical
categorical or quantitative: republican, democrat, or neither
Categorical
categorical or quantitative: colors of the rainbow
Categorical
categorical or quantitative: grade you are in
Categorical
categorical or quantitative: whether you are a freshmen, sophomore, junior, or senior
Categorical
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