APUSH Imperialism and WWI

a policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations
Influence of Sea Power
described how building strong naval forces would lead to a nation becoming a major world power
the doctrine of expanding the territory or the economic influence of a country
Sphere of Influence
the geographical area in which one nation is very influential
Albert Beveridge
A historian and United States Senator from Indiana who also was a skilled orator. One of his speeches justified the annexation of the Philippines, thus promoting a growth of American imperialism.
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Henry Cabot Lodge
conservative senator who wanted to keep the united states out of the league of nations
Alfred Mahan
1840-1914. US Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. Influenced navies worldwide on the importance of building a strong navy. Author of "The Influence of Seapower Upon History, 1660-1783" in 1890. Taught at Naval War College, and was twice President of College.
William Seward
Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.
Alaska Purchase
Secretary of State William Seward bought Alaska from Russia for $7.2 Million ("Seward's Folly")
an advocate of the policy of dominating other nations by acquiring their land or making them economically dependent
Being oposed to wars of conquest, and expanding the country by taking someone else's land, especially when they do not have the same language and/or culture
White Man's Burden
idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized
1897-1901-US president who didn't want war w/ Cuba, but US ppl did want war, and he decided to cave to will of ppl and ask Congress for war
De Lome Letter
Spanish Ambassador's letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. Mail and published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley in insulting terms. Used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898.
USS Maine
Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War
General Wyler
a spanish general who used brutal tactics to keep the rebelion down
William R. Hearst
a journalist, interested in the Cuba situation, used yellow journalism to attract customers.
Joseph Pulitzer
creator of the "New York World;"cut the prices so people could afford it; featured color comics and yellow journalism
Yellow Press
made people more interested in the war by publishing sometimes untrue articles that inflamed opinion and anger
THeodore Roosevelt
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
Rough Riders
volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
Splendid Little war
term used by John Hay in a letter to Teddy Roosevelt; all of Spain's ships were destroyed in 7 hours; war was short and effective even though americans also died.
Teller Amendment
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
Platt Amendment
prevented newly independent Cuba from making treaties with other nations and gave the US control over Guantanamo Bay
Treaty of Paris 1898
The treaty that ended the Spanish american war which got freedom of cuba but didn't get the Independence of the Philippines.America also got Guam
The queen of Hawaii in 1887 who disliked foreigners entering her country. She didn't want to go to war with America because she knew her people would get massacred.
Acquisition of Hawaii
Became Territory of Hawaii in 1898. Group of Europeans and Americans established their own governments in Hawaii without permission from the Queen. Run as a republic from 1894 until annexation.
an appeal intended to arouse patriotic emotions
Filipino insurgent leader brought out of exile in Asia
John Hay
Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt who pioneered the open-door policy and Panama canal
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Foraker Act
gave the US direct control over and power to set up a government in Puerto Rico
Anti Imperialist League
group of antiimperialists that advocated for isolationism
Boxer Rebellion
A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Russo-Japanese War
A conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea.
Treaty of Portsmouth
1905 treaty between Russia and Japan ending the Russo-Japanese War
GEntleman's Agreement
in 1907 this accord restricted Japanese immigration to the united states
GReat white fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests
an economic system built on large industries rather than on agriculture or craftsmanship
Franz Ferdinand
archduke of austria who is assassinated by serbian nationalist; sparks WWI
Triple Alliance
Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry
Triple Entente
Russia, France, Great Britain
American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI
Zimmerman Note
Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.
Safe for Democracy
Woodrow Wilson's argument that America needed to enter World War I in order to make the world "safe for democracy".
Selective Service Act
law requiring men to register for military service
American Expeditionary Force which was volunteers and National Guardsmen who fought in WW1
Liberty Bonds
Government bonds or investments which people bought to help pay for the war
Fourteen Points
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
The Big Four
Italy, France, England, and the U.S. 4 powers who met at Versallies to discuss peace
Victoriano Huerta
He ruthlessly seized power in Mexico in 1913. President Wilson objected to his murderous methods and refused to extend diplomatic recognition to his government. He abdicated in 1914.
Venustiano CArranza
(1859-1920) Mexican revolutionist and politician; he led forces against Vitoriano Huerta during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920).
Pancho Villa
Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923) Did many good things, but killed a lot of people. Wanted to take money from the rich and give it to the poor.
John Pershing
President Wilson sent this man with his army to Mexico to Pancho Villa (never captured Villa)
Dollar Diplomacy
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by guaranteeing loans to foreign countries
Arabic and Sussex pledges
-Germans asked US to encourage British to follow International law regarding contraband
-meant to keep US out of war
-Germany needed more time to build more U-boats; complete blockade of Britain
- U-boat is a submarine
National defense act
(June 1916) Increased the number of US soldiers in the army, navy and national guard.
revenue act of 1916
Boost to income taxes
war industries board
Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.
great migration
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Committee on Public Information
Organization also known as the Creel Commision which was responsible for rallying American's around the war effort through propaganda
Espionage Act
1917, outlawed treason (opposing draft, criticizing government, flag, or military)
Sedition Act
made it a crime to write, print, utter, or publish criticism of the president of government
Schenck v. United States
Court case that limited freedom of speech 2) upheld the Espionage Act 3) under certain circumstances, the SC can limit free speech.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI
Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations
Senators who pledged to vote in favor of the Treaty of Versailles if certain changes were made - led by Henry Cabot Lodge
Spanish Flu
Pandemic that spread around the world in 1918, killing more than 50 million people
Red Scare
a period of general fear of communists
A Mitchell Palmer
attorney general who authorized anti-radical raids and deportations
Panama Canal Act
exempted american coastwise shipping from tolls in the panama canal. invoked sharp protests from the brits. enacted in 1912, revoked by congress in 1914, under wilson's influnce.