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a policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations

Influence of Sea Power

described how building strong naval forces would lead to a nation becoming a major world power


the doctrine of expanding the territory or the economic influence of a country

Sphere of Influence

the geographical area in which one nation is very influential

Albert Beveridge

A historian and United States Senator from Indiana who also was a skilled orator. One of his speeches justified the annexation of the Philippines, thus promoting a growth of American imperialism.

Social Darwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.

Henry Cabot Lodge

conservative senator who wanted to keep the united states out of the league of nations

Alfred Mahan

1840-1914. US Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. Influenced navies worldwide on the importance of building a strong navy. Author of "The Influence of Seapower Upon History, 1660-1783" in 1890. Taught at Naval War College, and was twice President of College.

William Seward

Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.

Alaska Purchase

Secretary of State William Seward bought Alaska from Russia for $7.2 Million ("Seward's Folly")


an advocate of the policy of dominating other nations by acquiring their land or making them economically dependent


Being oposed to wars of conquest, and expanding the country by taking someone else's land, especially when they do not have the same language and/or culture

White Man's Burden

idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized


1897-1901-US president who didn't want war w/ Cuba, but US ppl did want war, and he decided to cave to will of ppl and ask Congress for war

De Lome Letter

Spanish Ambassador's letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. Mail and published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley in insulting terms. Used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898.

USS Maine

Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War

General Wyler

a spanish general who used brutal tactics to keep the rebelion down

William R. Hearst

a journalist, interested in the Cuba situation, used yellow journalism to attract customers.

Joseph Pulitzer

creator of the "New York World;"cut the prices so people could afford it; featured color comics and yellow journalism

Yellow Press

made people more interested in the war by publishing sometimes untrue articles that inflamed opinion and anger

THeodore Roosevelt

26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War

Rough Riders

volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War

Splendid Little war

term used by John Hay in a letter to Teddy Roosevelt; all of Spain's ships were destroyed in 7 hours; war was short and effective even though americans also died.

Teller Amendment

Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war

Platt Amendment

prevented newly independent Cuba from making treaties with other nations and gave the US control over Guantanamo Bay

Treaty of Paris 1898

The treaty that ended the Spanish american war which got freedom of cuba but didn't get the Independence of the Philippines.America also got Guam


The queen of Hawaii in 1887 who disliked foreigners entering her country. She didn't want to go to war with America because she knew her people would get massacred.

Acquisition of Hawaii

Became Territory of Hawaii in 1898. Group of Europeans and Americans established their own governments in Hawaii without permission from the Queen. Run as a republic from 1894 until annexation.


an appeal intended to arouse patriotic emotions


Filipino insurgent leader brought out of exile in Asia

John Hay

Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt who pioneered the open-door policy and Panama canal

Open Door Policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

Foraker Act

gave the US direct control over and power to set up a government in Puerto Rico

Anti Imperialist League

group of antiimperialists that advocated for isolationism

Boxer Rebellion

A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force

Russo-Japanese War

A conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea.

Treaty of Portsmouth

1905 treaty between Russia and Japan ending the Russo-Japanese War

GEntleman's Agreement

in 1907 this accord restricted Japanese immigration to the united states

GReat white fleet

1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."


a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests


an economic system built on large industries rather than on agriculture or craftsmanship

Franz Ferdinand

archduke of austria who is assassinated by serbian nationalist; sparks WWI

Triple Alliance

Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry

Triple Entente

Russia, France, Great Britain


American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI

Zimmerman Note

Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.

Safe for Democracy

Woodrow Wilson's argument that America needed to enter World War I in order to make the world "safe for democracy".

Selective Service Act

law requiring men to register for military service


American Expeditionary Force which was volunteers and National Guardsmen who fought in WW1

Liberty Bonds

Government bonds or investments which people bought to help pay for the war

Fourteen Points

the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations

Treaty of Versailles

the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations

The Big Four

Italy, France, England, and the U.S. 4 powers who met at Versallies to discuss peace

Victoriano Huerta

He ruthlessly seized power in Mexico in 1913. President Wilson objected to his murderous methods and refused to extend diplomatic recognition to his government. He abdicated in 1914.

Venustiano CArranza

(1859-1920) Mexican revolutionist and politician; he led forces against Vitoriano Huerta during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920).

Pancho Villa

Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923) Did many good things, but killed a lot of people. Wanted to take money from the rich and give it to the poor.

John Pershing

President Wilson sent this man with his army to Mexico to Pancho Villa (never captured Villa)

Dollar Diplomacy

Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by guaranteeing loans to foreign countries

Arabic and Sussex pledges

-Germans asked US to encourage British to follow International law regarding contraband
-meant to keep US out of war
-Germany needed more time to build more U-boats; complete blockade of Britain
- U-boat is a submarine

National defense act

(June 1916) Increased the number of US soldiers in the army, navy and national guard.

revenue act of 1916

Boost to income taxes

war industries board

Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.

great migration

movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920

Committee on Public Information

Organization also known as the Creel Commision which was responsible for rallying American's around the war effort through propaganda

Espionage Act

1917, outlawed treason (opposing draft, criticizing government, flag, or military)

Sedition Act

made it a crime to write, print, utter, or publish criticism of the president of government

Schenck v. United States

Court case that limited freedom of speech 2) upheld the Espionage Act 3) under certain circumstances, the SC can limit free speech.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.


Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI


Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations


Senators who pledged to vote in favor of the Treaty of Versailles if certain changes were made - led by Henry Cabot Lodge

Spanish Flu

Pandemic that spread around the world in 1918, killing more than 50 million people

Red Scare

a period of general fear of communists

A Mitchell Palmer

attorney general who authorized anti-radical raids and deportations

Panama Canal Act

exempted american coastwise shipping from tolls in the panama canal. invoked sharp protests from the brits. enacted in 1912, revoked by congress in 1914, under wilson's influnce.

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