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161 terms

Ch 5 Cardiovascular System

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cardiovascular
pertaining to the heart and blood vessels
heart
hollow muscular organ located between the lungs
pericardium
double-walled membranous sac that encloses the heart
percardial fluid
found in the space between the layers of the pericardium prevents friction when the heart beats
epicardium
external layer of the heart and is also part of the inner layer of the pericardial sac
myocardium
middle and thickest of the three layers and it consists of specialized cardiac muscle
endocardium
lining of the heart
coronary arteries and veins
supply the blood needs of the myocardium
atria
two upper chambers of the heart; returning chambers
interarterial septum
seperates atria
ventricles
two lower chambers of the heart
interventricular septum
seperates ventricles
cardiac apex
narrow tip of the heart
tricuspid valve
opening between right atrium and right ventricle
pulmonary semilunar valve
located between right ventricle and pulmonary artery
mitral/bicuspid valve
between left atrium and left ventricle
aortic semilunar valve
located between left ventricle and aorta
systemic circulartion
includes flow of blood to all parts of the body except the lungs
pulmonary circulation
flow of blood between the heart and lungs
sinatrial nodes
located in the posterior wall of the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava; natural pacemaker
atriventricular node
located on the floor of the right atrium near the interatrial septum
Bundle of His
named for discoverer Wilhelm His Jr.; located within interventricular septum; branches off
Purkinje fibers
branches of Bundle of His fibers that surround ventricles
P wave
due to contraction of the atria
QRS complex
contraction of ventricles
T wave
relaxation of ventricles
lumen
opening in blood vessels
endarterial
pertaining to the lining of the artery
aorta
largest blood vessel in the body
arterioles
smaller, thinner branches of arteris; carry blood to capillaries
venules
small veins that join to form larger veins
deep veins
located within the tissues and away from the surface
superficial veins
located near body surface
venae cavae
two large veins that return blood to the heart
superior vena cava
brings blood from the upper portion of the body
inferior vena cava
brings blood from the lower portion of the body
blood pressure
measurement of the amount of pressure exerted against the walls of the vessels
systolic pressure
occurs when the ventricles contract, is the highest pressure exerted against the walls of the blood vessels
diastolic pressure
occurs when the ventricles are relaxed, lowest pressure exerted on the walls of the blood vessels
plasma
straw-colored fluid that contains nutrients, hormones, and waste products; 91% water, 9% proteins
fibrinogen and prothrombin
clotting proteins found in plasma
serum
plasma with clotting proteins removed
formed elements
aka blood corpsules; include erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), thrombocytes (platelets)
neutrophils
WBC formed in the red blood marrow; most common; fight infection by phagocytosis
basophils
formed in red bone marrow; responsible for symptoms of allergies
eosinophils
formed in red bone marrow; destroy parasitic organisms and play a major role in allergic reactions
lymphocytes
formed in red bone marrow, lymph nodes, and the spleen; important role in protecting the body against foriegn invaders
monocytes
formed in red bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen; protect against disease; high concentration means chronic disease
blood gases
oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen
coronay artery disease
atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries that may cause angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and sudden death
end stage coronary artery disease
characterized by unrelenting angina pain and a severly limited lifestyle
atherosclerosis
hardening and narrowing of the arteries caused by a buildup of cholesterol plaques
plaque
fatty-deposit
atheroma
deposit of plaque within the arterial wall
ischemia
temporary deficiency in blood supply due to either the constriction (narrowing) or the obstruction (blockage) of a blood vessel
ischemic heart disease
groupd of cardiac disabilities resultign from insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart that are usually associated with coronary artery disease
angina pectoris
episodes of severe chest pain due to inadequate blood flow to the myocardium
myocardial infarction
is the occlusion (blockage) of one or more coronary arteries resultign in an infarct fo the affected myocardium
infarction
sudden insufficiency of blood that causes necrosis
infarct
resulting localized area of necrosis
congestive heart failure (CHF)
syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's need for oxygen and nutrients; in turn kidneys retain more fluid
cardiomegaly
abnormal enlargement of the heart
carditis
inflammation of the heart
endocarditis
inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
bacterial endocarditis
inflammation of the lining or valves of the heart
myocarditis
inflammation of the myocardium
pericarditis
inflammation of the pericardium
valvulitis
inflammation of a heart valve
valvular prolapse
abnormal protrusion of the valve that results in the inability of the valve to close completely
stenosis
abnormal narrowing of the valve ; named for the affected valve
cardiac arrhythmia
dysrrhythmia; change int eh rhythym of the heartbeat
fibrillation
describes rapid, random, quivering and ineffective contractions of the heart
bradycardia
abnormally slow heartbeat; <60 bpm
tachycardia
abnormally fast heartbeat; >100 bpm
palpitation
pounding or racing heart with or without irregularity in rhythym
paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
PAT; episodes that begins and ends abruptly during which there are rapid and regular heartbeats from the atria; caused by abnormality in the electrical system
atrial fibrillation
A fib; rapid irregular twitching of the muscular wall causing an irregular and quivering action of atria
ventricular fibrillation
V-fib; rapid, irregular and useless contractions of the ventricles; usually fatal
angiitis
vasculitis; inflammation of a blood or lymph vessel
angiospasm
spasmodic contraction of blood vessels
angiostenosis
narrowing of a blood vessel
hemangioma
benign tumor made up of newly formed blood vessels
hypoperfusion
is a deficiency of blood passing through an organ or body part
perfusion
flow of blood through an organ or body part
peripheral vascular disease
refers to disorders of blood vessels outside the heart and brain; most commonly of the arms and legs
aneurysm
localized weak spot, or balloon like enlargement, of the wall of an artery
arteriosclerosis
any group of diseases that are characterized by thickening and the loss of elasticity of arterial walls
polyarteritis
inflammation involving several arteries at the same time
Paynaud's phenomenon
consists of intermittent attacks of pallor (paleness), cyanosis (blue color), and redness of the fingers and toes; may be due to cold or emotion
phlebitis
inflammation of a vein
varicose veins
abnormally swollen veins, usually occuring in the legs
thrombosis
abnormal condition of having thrombus
thrombus
blood clot attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein
thrombotic occlusion
blocking of an artery by a thrombus
coronary thrombosis
damage to the heart muscle caused by a thrombus blocking a coronary artery
deep vein thrombosis
condition of having a thrombus attached to the wall of a deep vein; in the legs when the patient is bedridden; fear is that it will break and travel where it can be fatal
embolism
sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus
embolus
foreign object object, such as a blood clot, quantity of air or gas, or a bit of tissue or tumor that is cirulating in the blood
dyscrasia
any pathologic condition of the cellular elements of the blood
hemochromatosis
genetic disorder in which the intestines absorb too much iron; aka iron overload disease
septicemia
aka blood poisoning, systemic disease caused by the spread of microorganisms and their toxins via the circulating blood
hemlytic reaction
aka transfusion reaction; destruction of erythrocytes that occurs when a patient recieves a transfusion of mismatched blood
cholesterol
waxy fat like substance that travels in the blood in packages called lipoproteins
low-density lopoprotein cholesterol
BAD; contribute to plaque buildup
high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
GOOD; carries unneeded cholesterol back to the liver for processing and does not contribute to plaque
triglycerides
combinations of fatty acids attached to glycerol that are also found normally in blood in limited quantities
homocycteine
amino acid nornally found in blood and used by the body to build and maintain tissues; can be damaging to walls if too high
hyperlipidemia
hyperlipemia; general term for the condition of elevated plasma concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoproteins
myelodysplastic syndrome
preleukemia; progressive condition of dysfunctional boen marrow that may eventually develop into leukemia; treated with transfusions
leukemia
malignancy characterized by a progressive increase in the number of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and in the circulating organs; treated with bone marrow transplants
anemia
disorder characterized by lower than normal levels of red blood cells in the blood
aplastic anemia
characterized by an absence of all formed blood elements; failure to produce in red bone marrow
hemolytic anemia
red blood cells are destroyed mroe rapidly than the bone marrow can replace them
iron-deficiency anemia
decrease in the red cells of the blood that is caused by too little iron
megaloblastic anemia
blood disorder in which red blood cells are larger than normal; deficiency of folic acid (B12)
pernicious anemia
autoimmune disorder in which the red blood cells are abnormally formed, due to an inability to absorb vitamin B12
sickle cell anemia
genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in red blood cells that assume an abnormal sickle shape
thalassemia
Cooley's anemia; diverse group of genetic blood diseases that are characterized by absent or decreased production of normal hemoglobin
essenital hypertension
primary/idiopathoc hypertension; consistently elevated blood pressure of unknown cause
secondary hypertension
caused by a medical problem; kidney disorder or tumor of adrenal glands
malignant hypertension
characterized by sudden onset of severely elevated blood pressure
hypotension
lower than normal blood pressure
orthostatic hypotension
postural hypotension; low blood pressure that occurs in a standing posture
angiography
radiographic study of the blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium
digital subtraction angiography
diagnostic technique that combines video with computer-assisted enhancement of images obtained by conventional angiography
cardiac catheterization
diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is passed into a vein or artery and then guided into the heart; contrast medium is introduced
phlebography
venography; technique of preparing an x-ray image of veins injected with contrast medium
coronary calcium screening
utilizes computerized tomography (CT), identifies the presence and quantity of coronary artery calcium deposits
electrocardiography
process of recording the electrical activity of the myocardium
Holter monitor
portable electrocardiograph that is worn by an ambulatory patient to continuously monitor the heart rates and rhythms over a 24-hour period
stress tests
electrocardiography used to assess cardiovascular health and function during and after stress such as exercise on a treadmill
thallium stress test
the flow of blood through the heart during activity is assessed through the use of the radionuclide thallium during a stress test
ACE inhibitors
angiotensin converting enzyme; treat hypertension and congestive heart failure; interfere with the action of the kidney enzyme renin that causes the heart to contract
beta-blockers
reduce blood pressure by slowing the heart beat
calcium channel blockers
reduce the contraction of the muscles that squeeze blood vessels tight; treat hypertension, angina, arrhythmia
diuretics
increase urine secretion to rid the body of excess sodium and water; treat hypertension and CHF
cholesterol-lowing drugs
statins; combat hyperlipidemia
digoxin
digitalis; slows and strengthens the heart muscle contractions and is used in the treatment of atrial fibrillation and CHF
nitroglycerin
vasodilator that is prescribed to relieve the pain of angina pectoris
anticoagulant
slows coagulation and prevents new clots from forming
thrombolytic
causes the dissolving or breaking up of a thrombus
antiarrhythmic
adminsitered to control irregularities of the heartbeat
tissue plasminogen activator
thromoblytic that is administered to certain patients having a heart attakc or stroke
vasoconstrictor
constricts or narrows blood vessels
vasodilator
dilates (expands) blood vessels
percutaneous tansluminal coronary angioplasty
balloon angioplasty; small balloon on the end of a catheter is used to open a partially blocked coronary artery by flattening the plaque deposit and stretching the lumen
stent
wiremesh tube
atherectomy
surgical removal of a plaque from the interior lining of an artery
endarterectomy
surgical removal of the lining of an artery that is clogged with plaque
carotid endarterectomy
surgical removal of the lining of a portion of a clogged carotid artery leading to the brain
coronary artery bypass graft
bypass surgey; piece of vein from leg or chest is implanted on the heart to replace a blocked coronary artery and to improve the flow of blood to the heart
minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass
keyhole/button hole bypass; alternative technique for some bypass cases; performed with the aid of a fiberoptic camera through small openings in the ribs
defibrillation
cardioversion; use of electrical shock to restore the heart's normal rhythm
automated external defibrillator
designed for use by nonprofessionals (AED) automatically samples the electrical rhythms of the heart; shocks automatically
pacemaker
electronic device that may be attached externally or implanted under the skin, with connections leading into the heart to regulate the heartbeat
implantable cardioverter defibrillator
double action pacemaker; constantly regulates the heartbeat to ensure that the heart does not beat too slowly; acts as an automatic defibrillator
valvoplasty
valvuloplasty; surgical replacement of a heart valve
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
emergency procedure for life support consisting of artificial respiration and manual external cardiac compression
aneurysmectomy
surgical removal of an aneurysm
aneurysmorrhaphy
surgical suturing of an aneurysm
arteriectomy
surgical removal of part of an artery